PROPOSED COURSE CODES FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE LABORATORY TECHNOLOGY FULL- TIME FIVE YEAR B.Sc (SLT) PROGRAMME

100 Level

FIRST SEMESTER

S/N      COURSE CODE                      COURSE TITLE                                  CREDIT

  1. *PBB 111                                Introduction of plant biology I                  3
  2. *AEB 111                                Introduction Zoology                                            4
  3. +CHM 111                               General Chemistry I                                              3
  4. +CHM 113                               Organic Chemistry I                                              3
  5. +PHY 111                                Mechanics, Thermal & Properties of materials.  3
  6. +PHY 113                                Vibrations, Waves & Optics                                 3
  7. +MTH 112                               Calculus                                                                3
  8. *GST 111                                Use of English I                                                    2
  9. *GST 112                                Physiology & Logic                                              2

                                                                                                                                        26

100 Level

SECOND SEMESTER

S/N      COURSE CODE                      COURSE TITLE                                         CREDIT

  1. *PBB 122                                Introductory to Plant Biology II                          3
  2. *AEB 122                                Functional Zoology                                             4
  3. +CHM 122                               General Chemistry II                                          3
  4. +CHM 124                               Organic Chemistry II                                          3
  5. +PHY 109                                Practical Physics                                                 2
  6. *GST 121                                Use of English II                                                 2
  7. *GST 122                                Nigerian People & Culture                                  2
  8. *GST 123                                History and Philosophy of Science                     2

                                                                                                                                      21

200 Level

FIRST SEMESTER

S/N      COURSE CODE                      COURSE TITLE                                              CREDIT

1.       +PPT 211                                    Introduction to Pharmacology                              2                    

2.       +PPT 212                                   Toxicology                                                           2    

3.       +MBT 213                                 Microbiology/Physiology/Biochemistry             2       

4.         *SLT 214                                 Glass Blowing Techniques                                    3    

5.         *SLT 215                                 Instrumentation/Maintenance                                3

6.         *SLT 216                                 Biology Techniques                                              2    

7.        +GMT 217                                General Geology                                                   2

8.        +CSC 210                                 Introduction to Computer                                     2    .

                                                                                                                                       18    .

200 Level

SECOND SEMESTER

S/N      COURSE CODE                                  COURSE TITLE                               CREDIT

1.         *SLT 221                                 Physics Practical                                  3

2.         +BCT 222                               Introduction to Biochemistry                           2

3.         *SLT 223                                 General Laboratory Techniques                       3         

4.         *SLT 224                                 Chemistry Practical                              3                         

5.         *SLT 225                                 Workshop Technology Science                       3                    6.           *SLT 226                                    Engineering Drawing                                       3           

7.         *SLT 227                                 Biological Laboratory Techniques                   3                     

                                                                                                                                                    20   .

GEOLOGY TECHNIQUES OPTION

300 Level

FIRST SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                     CREDIT

1.            + GMT 310                           Structural Geology                                          3

2.             +GMT 312                           Micropaleontology and Palaeontology          3

3.             +GMT 314                           Introduction to Field Geology (field)             3

4.            *GLT 305                             Radio Chemistry and Nuclear Chemistry      3

5.             +GMT 315                           Sedimentology                                     2

6.             +GMT 316                           Stratigraphy and Geochronology                     2                     

7.            *GLT 315                             Hazards and Safety in the Laboratory              3

8.             +GMT 313                           Invertebrate Palaeontology                              3

                                                                                                                                  22    

 300 Level

SECOND SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                              CREDIT

1.             +GMT 321                           Petrology of Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks    3                      

2.             +GMT 322                           Sedimentology                                                       3   

3.            *GLT 323                             Vacuum Physics and Thin Film                             3                                   

4.             +GMT 324                           Geology of Nigeria                                                3 

5.            *GLT 348                             Instrumental Method of Analysis                           3

6.             +GMT 329                           Exploration and Mining Geology                           2

7.             +GMT 320                           Statistics for Physical Science & Engineering      3     

8.             +CED300                             Entrepreneurship                                                    2  

                                                                                                                                         22        

400 Level

FIRST SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                            CREDIT

1.             +GMT 410                           Economic Geology                                               3

2.            *GLT 411                             Laboratory Organisation and Management I      2                        

3.             +GMT 412                           Environmental Geology                                       3  

4.             +GMT 413                           Mineralogy                                                          3

5.             +GMT 414                           Geochemistry                                                      3

6.             +GMT 416                           Engineering Geology I                              3 

7.             +GMT 411                           Map Interpretation                                                4          

8.             +GMT 415                           Photo-geology                                          2    

                                                                                                                                        23   ,

400 Level

SECOND SEMESTER

 S/N          COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                             CREDIT

1.              *GLT 420                           Industrial Training (Site work Supervision)        4 

2.              *GLT 421                           Industrial Training (University Supervision)       4

3.              *GLT 422                           Industrial Training (Student Report)                       4   ,

                                                                                                                                        12                    

500 Level

FIRST SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                             CREDIT

1.              * GMT 510                         Field Geology                                                       4

2.              *GLT 511                           Advanced Geological Laboratory                         4

                                                            Techniques and Equipment Maintenance 

3.              *GMT 512                          Engineering and Hydrogeology                             3

4.              *GLT 518                           Photography and Bio-Illustration                       3  

5.              *GLT 516                           Seminar                                                                2

6.              +GMT 514                          Geophysics                                                           3

7.              +GMT 513                          Marine Geology                                                    3   .

  8.           +GMT 517                          Scientific Research and Communication            2

                                                                            24  .

* Core Courses

500 Level

SECOND SEMESTER

S/N      COURSE CODE                      COURSE TITLE                                  CREDIT

1.       *GLT 520                                  Advance Geological Laboratory Techniques      4

2.       *GMT 521                                Research Project                                                    4

3.       *GLT 527                                  Laboratory Organisation & Management I         3

4.       +GMT 527                                 Energy Resource                                                   3

5.       +GMT 529                                 Remote Sensing II                                                 3

6.       +GMT 520                                 Genestone Technology                                         3

7.       +GMT 522                                 Exploration Geochemistry                                    3                                                                                                                                                        23                                                   

MICROBIOLOGY TECHNIQUES OPTION

300 Level

FIRST SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                             CREDIT

1.            +MBT 316                            Medical Microbiology                                3

2.            *MBT 317                            Microbiological Techniques                                   3 

3.            *GLT 315                             Hazards and Safety in the Laboratory                    3

4.            *GLT 305                             Radio Chemistry and Nuclear Chemistry               3

5.             +MBT 311                           General Microbiology                                            3

6.             +MBT 310                           Bacteriology                                                          3

                                                                                                                                        18

300 Level

SECOND SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                             CREDIT

1             + BIO 327                             Molecular Biology                                                3                                                                  

2.            *GLT 348                             Instrumental Method of Analysis                          3                                                                   

3.             +MBT 329                           Environmental Microbiology                                3    

4.             +BIO 328                             Mycology                                                             3                                    

5.            *GLT 323                             Vacuum Physics & Thin film Techniques          3                                   

6.             +MBT 322                           General Microbiology                               3

7.             +BIO 320                             Statistics for Biological Science                          3

8.             +CED300                             Entrepreneurship                                                  2.   

.                                                                                                                                       23                     

*Core Courses

400 Level

FIRST SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                             CREDIT

1.             +MBT 416                           Biochemistry of Parasites                                      3              

2.            *GLT 411                             Laboratory Organisation and Management I          2        

3.             +MBT 418                           Enzymology                                                          3   

4.             +MBT 419                           Industrial Microbiology                                         4                                   

5.             +MBT 410                           Pharmaceutical Microbiology                                3 

6.             +MBT 411                           Food Microbiology                                                3

7.             +MBT 412                           Analytical Microbiolgy/Quality Control                 3  .

                                                                                                                                          21

400 Level

SECOND SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                             CREDIT

1.              *GLT 420                           Industrial Training (Site work Supervision)        4 

2.              *GLT 421                           Industrial Training (University Supervision)       4

3.              *GLT 422                           Industrial Training (Student Report)                       4   ,

                                                                                                                                        12                    

500 Level

FIRST SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                             CREDIT

1.             +MBT 514                           Petroleum Microbiology                                        3

2.             +MBT 515                           Plant Pathology                                                      3

3.            *MBT 516                            Seminar                                                                 2

4.            + MBT 517                           Process Biochemistry                                             3

5.            *GLT 518                             Photography and Bio-Illustration                           3

6.            +MBT 519                           Applied Vector and Pest Management        2  .

7.             +GLT517                             Scientific Research and Communication             2                                                                                                                                                              18                  

500 Level

SECOND SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                             CREDIT

1.             +MBT 523                           Food Processing                                                     3                           

2.             +MBT 524                           Principle of Epidemiology and Public Health      2                      

3.            + MBT 525                           Applied Storage Techniques                                  3   

4.            *MBT 521                            Research Project                                                    4                                   

5.            *GLT 527                             Laboratory Organization Management II             3                      6.             +MBT 528                              Fermentation of Drinks                                          3   .                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   18   .

PHYSIOLOGY/PHARMACOLOGY TECHNIQUES

300 Level

FULL TIME 1ST SEMESTER

S/N      COURSE CODE          COURSE TITLE                                                          CREDIT

1.         *GLT315                     Hazard & Safety in the Laboratory                                          3

2.         *GLT305                     Radio Chemistry & Nuclear Chemistry                                    3

3.         +PPT310                      Blood and Body Fluid Physiology                                           2

4.         +PPT311                      Cardiovascular System Physiology                                          2         

5.         +PPT 313                     Alimentary System Physiology                                                2

6.         +PPT 316                     Autonomic Nervous System Physiology                                  2

7.         +PPT 317                     Central Nervous System Physiology                                        2

8.        + CHT312                     Physical Chemistry II                                                      2

9.        +CHT311                   Organic Chemistry II                                                       3 

                                                                                                                                                21

*Core courses

2nd SEMESTER

S/N      COURSE CODE          COURSE TITLE                                                          CREDIT

1.         *GLT 323                    Vacuum Physic & Thin Film Tech                                           3

2.         *GLT 348                    Instrumental Method of Analysis                                             3

3.         +BIO 320                     Statistics for Biological Sci.                                                     3

4.         +PPT 323                     Autonomic Pharmacology                                                       2

5.         +PPT 322                     Cardiovascular Pharmacology                                                 2

6.         +PPT 324                     Practical Pharmacology                                                            3

7.        + PPT 312                     Respiratory Physiology                                                            2

8.        + PPT 315                     Renal System Physiology                                                         2

9.         +CED 300                    Entrepreneurship                                                                     2

                                                                                                                                             22 ­                                                                                                 

*Core courses

400 Level

FULL TIME FIRST SEMESTER

S/N      COURSE CODE          COURSE TITLE                                                          CREDIT

1         *PPT 423                      Instrumentation                                                                        3

2.         +PPT 424                     Animal Management                                                                2

3.         *GLT 411                    Lab. Organization and Management 1                         4

4.         +PPT 426                     Practical Pharmacology                                                            3

5.         +PPT 425                     Systemic Pharmacology                                                           2

6.         +PPT 427                     Central Nervous System Pharmacology                                   3

7.         +PPT 428                     Hematological/Biochemical practical (Practical Physiology) 2

8.         +PPT 429                     Autocrine/Endocrine Pharmacology                                        2

                                                                                                                                       19

*Core Courses

SECOND SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                             CREDIT

1.              *GLT 420                           Industrial Training (Site work Supervision)        4 

2.              *GLT 421                           Industrial Training (University Supervision)       4

3.              *GLT 422                           Industrial Training (Student Report)                       4   ,

                                                                                                                                        12                    

500 Level

FULL TIME 1st SEMESTER

S/N      COURSE CODE          COURSE TITLE                                                             CREDIT

1.         *PPT 510                     Toxicology Practical                                                                3

2.          +PPT 512                    Physiology/Pharmacology Techniques                         3

3.         *PPT 516                     Seminar                                                                                   2

4.         *GLT 518                    Photography & Bio-illustration                                                3         

5.         +GLT517                     Scientific Reseach and Communication                                    2                                                                                                                                                          13

*Core Courses

500 Level

FULL TIME 2nd SEMESTER

S/N      COURSE CODE          COURSE TITLE                                                          CREDIT

1         +PPT 529                      Principle of Chemotherapy                                                      6

2.         *PPT 521                     Project                                                                                     4

3.        +PPT 522                      Drug quality control and Assurance Practical              3

4.         *GLT 527                    Laboratory Organization and Management II                           3

5.        +PPT 523                      Drug quality control and Assurance                                         3

                                                                                                                                                19

*Core Courses

CHEMISTRY THECHNIQUES OPTION

300 Level

FIRST SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                           CREDIT

1.            *GLT 315                             Hazards and Safety in the Laboratory                     3

2.             +CHT 310                            Inorganic Chemistry11                                           3

3.             +CHT 311                            Organic Chemistry11                                              3

4.             +CHT 312                            Physical Chemistry11                                             2 

5.             +CHT 318                            Polymer Science and technology                            2 

6.             +CHT 314                            Natural Product            1                                         3

7.              *GLT 305                           Radio Chemistry and Nuclear Chemistry                3

8.             +CHT 315                            Industrial Raw Material Resource Inventory        3

                                                                                                                                          22   .                                                                       

300 Level

SECOND SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                          CREDIT

1.             +CHT 320                            Environmental Chemistry                                     2                             

2.             +CHT 321                            Petrochemistry 1                                                   2          

3.             +CHT 322                            Colour Chemistry & Technology 1                       2                

4.             +CHT 323                            Applied Spectroscopy                                           2    

5.             +CHT 324                            Food Chemistry                                                    3

6.            *GLT 348                             Instrumental Method of Analysis                          3      

7.            *GLT 323                             Vacuum Physics & Thin film Techniques          3                                

8.             +CHT 325                            Organometallic Chemistry                                    3          

9.             +CHT 327                            Statistics for Physical Science & Engineering    3  

10.           +CED300                             Entrepreneurship                                                  2 .  

                                                                                                                                       25

.   400 Level

FIRST SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                          CREDIT

1.             +CHT 412                            Reaction Kinetics                                                  2                                                     

2.            *GLT 411                             Laboratory Organisation and Management I          2        

3.             +CHT 415                            Heterocyclic Chemistry                                         2   

4.             +CHT 416                            Coordination Chemistry                                         2

5.             +CHT 417                            Natural Products 11                                               2

6.            *CHT 418                             Chemistry Laboratory Techniques Practice 1      3

7.            +CHT 411                             Atomic and Molecular Structure and Symmetry 3                                                                                                                                                                16

* Core Courses           .                                                                                                            161

400 Level

SECOND SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                             CREDIT

1.              *GLT 420                           Industrial Training (Site work Supervision)        4 

2.              *GLT 421                           Industrial Training (University Supervision)       4

3.              *GLT 422                           Industrial Training (Student Report)                       4   ,

                                                                                                                                        12                    

500 Level

FIRST SEMESTER

S/N      COURSE CODE                     COURSE TITLE                                             CREDIT

1.        +CHT 517                                 Wood, Pulp and Paper Chemistry 1                    2

2.       *CHT 516                                  Seminar                                                                2

3.       +CHT 519                                  Water & Waste Treatment                                     2

4.       +CHT 510                                  Dye and Textile Chemistry Technology                2

5.       *GLT 518                                  Photography & Bio- Illustration                            3

6.       +CHT 512                                  Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry             3

7.       *CHT 513                                  Industrial Chemical Processes II                         3

8.       +GLT517                                 Scientific Research and Communication             2

                                                                                                                                        19                                                                                     

500 Level

SECOND SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                                  CREDIT

1.             +CHT 522                           Quality Control & industrial Safety                               3

2.             +CHT 524                            Food Analysis                                                               2                                                           3.             +CHT 525                            Electrochemistry                                                           2                   4.               *CHT 526                                Chemistry Laboratory Techniques and Practice II       3                    

5.            + CHT 527                            Polymer Technology                                                     2        

6.            *GLT 527                              Laboratory Organisation and Management II            2    

7.             +CHT 529                            Analysis of Selected Materials including Drugs        3                                                           

8.             *CHT 521                            Project                                                                         4

9.             *CHT 520                           Industrial Chemistry Technology II                            3   .

                                                                                                                             24  .

BIOCHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES OPTION

300 Level

FIRST SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                           CREDIT

1.              +BCT 316                           Food Biochemistry                                               2

2.              +BCT 317                           Membrane Biochemistry                                       2

3.              +BCT 318                           Nutritional Biochemistry                                       2

4.              +BCT 312                           Physical Chemistry II                                            2 

5.              +BCT 311                           Organic Chemistry II                                            3 

6.              +BCT 314                           Microbial Genetics & Molecular Biology              3    

7.              *GLT 315                           Hazards and Safety in the Laboratory                   3

8.              *GLT 305                           Radio Chemistry and Nuclear Chemistry              3

9.              +BCT 313                           Metabolism of Carbohydrate                                2   .

                                                                                                                                        22                                                            

300 Level

SECOND SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                            CREDIT

1.              +BCT 324                           Enzymology                                                          3        

2.              +BCT 327                           Bioenergetics                                                         2               

3.              +BCT 328                           Metabolism of Lipids                                             2   

4.              +BCT 320                           Metabolism of Nucleic Acids                               2

5.              +BCT 321                           General Biochemical Methods                   2

6.              *GLT 348                           Instrumental Method of Analysis                           3

7.              *GLT 323                           Vacuum Physics & Thin film Techniques             3                      

8.              +BIO 320                           Statistics for Biological Science                           3

9.             +CED 300                            Entrepreneurship                                                   2   .

                                                                                                                                          22

* Core Courses

400 Levels

FIRST SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                           CREDIT

1.              +BCT 419                           Advanced Enzymology                                         2                  

2 *GLT 411                           Laboratory Organisation and Management I       2         

3.              +BCT 410                           Biosynthesis of Macromolecules                           3

4.              *BCT 416                          Advance Biochemical methods                            3          

5.              +BCT 411                           Bioinorganic Chemistry                                         2               

6.              +BCT 412                           Genetics Engineering                                             2   

7.              + BCT 413                          Plant Biochemistry                                                 2

8.              +BCT 414                           Biochemical Reasoning                                         2

9.              +BCT 415                           Biochemical Toxicology1                                      3     .

                                                                                                                                          21    .

400 Level

SECOND SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                             CREDIT

1.              *GLT 420                           Industrial Training (Site work Supervision)        4 

2.              *GLT 421                           Industrial Training (University Supervision)       4

3.              *GLT 422                           Industrial Training (Student Report)                       4   ,

                                                                                                                                        12                    

500 Level

FIRST SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                             COURSE TITLE                               CREDIT

1.              +BCT 514                           Metabolic Regulation                                            2                             

2.              +BCT 515                           Pharmacological Biochemistry                  2

3.              +BCT 513                           Enzyme Biotechnology                                         3

4.              *BCT 516                           Research Seminar                                                 2    

5.              +BCT 518                           Industrial Biochemistry                                         3

6.              +BCT 519                           Biophysics                                                            2

7.              *GLT 518                           Photography and Bio-Illustration                          3

8.              +BCT 517                           Process Biochemistry                                            3    .

9.              +GLT517                Scientific Research and Communication              2                                                                                                                                                         22            

500 Levels

SECOND SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                             COURSE TITLE                                 CREDIT                                                                                

1.              +BCT 523                           Advanced/Biochemistry                                       3         

2.              +BCT 522                           Tissue Biochemistry                                             2                

3.              +BCT 526                           Chemistry Laboratory Techniques                        3

4.             +BCT 524                            Biomass Utilization                                              2

5.             *BCT 521                            Research Project                                                   4

6.             +BCT 528                            Biochemical Toxicology II                                   2

7.             *GLT 527                            Lab. Organisation and Management II      3  .

                                                                                                                                       19  .

BIOTECHNOLOGY OPTION

300 Level

FIRST SEMESTER

S/N       COURSE CODE                                 COURSE TITLE                                 CREDIT

1.        +BTT 314                           Substrates Biotechnology                                            2

2         +BTT 315                          Genetics and Biotechnology                                        3

3         +BTT 316                          General Plant Physiology                                             3

4         +BTT 317                          Introduction to Biotechnology                                     3

5         +BTT 318                          Tissue and Cell Culture Techniques                             2

7         *BTT 319                          Biological Techniques                                                 4

8         *GLT 305                          Radio Chemistry and Nuclear Chemistry                    3

9.        *GLT 315                          Hazards and Safety in the Laboratory                         3  

                                                                                                                                       23  .

300 Level

SECOND SEMESTER

S/N      COURSE CODE                COURSE TITLE                                                   CREDIT

1          +BIO 320                     Statistics for Biological Science                                       3

2          +BIO 327                     Molecular Biology                                                           3

3          +BIO 328                     Mycology                                                                        3

4         *GLT 323                     Vacuum Physics and Thin Film Technology                    3

5         *GLT 348                     Instrument Methods of Analysis                                      3

6          +BTT 329                    Bioprocess/Fermentation Technology                  3

7.         +BTT 328                    General Cytology                                                             2   .

8.         +CED300                     Entrepreneurship                                                             2                                                                                                                                                                     22   .

400 Level

FIRST SEMESTER

S/N      COURSE CODE          COURSE TITLE                                                            CREDIT

1          *GLT 411                    Laboratory Organization and Management I                           2

2          +BTT 417                    Enzyme Biotechnology                                                             3

3          +BTT 418                    Genetics                                                                                    3

4          +BTT 419                    Environmental Biotechnology                                      3

5          +BTT 411                    Metabolic Plant Physiology                                                       3

6          +BTT 412                    Biotechnology and Medicine                                                    3

7          +BTT 413                    Biotechnology in Agric./Forestry Industries                              3   .

                                                                                                                                                                                                          20  .

400 Level

SECOND SEMESTER

S/N      COURSE CODE                      COURSE TITLE                                                 CREDIT

1          *GLT 420                    Industrial Training Site Work Supervision                             4

2          *GLT 421                    Industrial Training University Supervision                             4

3          *GLT 422                    Industrial Training Student Report                                         4   .

                                                                                                                                             12  .

500 Level

FIRST SEMESTER

S/N      COURSE CODE                         COURSE TITLE                                                 CREDIT

1          *GLT 517                                Scientific Research and Communication                     2

2          +BTT 512                                Single Cell Protein Technology                                    3

3          +BTT 514                                Mushroom Science Technology                                   3

4          *BTT 516                                Seminar                                                                       2

5          +BTT 513                                Principles of Plant Pathology                                       3

6         *GLT 518                                 Photography and Bio-illustration                                 3

7          +BTT 518                                Food and Beverage Technology                                  3

8          +BTT 519                                Plant Biochemistry                                                       3   .                                                                                                                                                    22  .        

500 Level 

SECOND SEMESTER

S/N      COURSE CODE                     COURSE TITLE                                                  CREDIT

1          *BTT 521                                Research Project                                                         4

2          *GLT 525                                Applied Storage Techniques                                       3

3          *GLT 527                                Laboratory Organization and Management II              3

4          +BTT 524                                Protection of Biotechnological Inventions                  3

5          +BTT 522                                Safety in Biotechnology                                             3

6          +BTT 523                                Genetic Engineering                                                    3   .

                                                                                                                                              19  .

* Core Courses

                          PHYSICS/ELECTRONICS TECHNIQUES OPTION

300 Level

FIRST SEMESTER

S/N      COURSE CODE                      COURSE TITLE                                                     CREDIT

1.         *GLT 305                    Radio Chemistry and Nuclear Chemistry                               3

2.         +PET 313                     Applied Electricity & Magnetism                                            3

3.         +PET 314                     Quantum Physics                                                                    3          

4.         +PET 316                     Energy and Environment                                                        2

5.         +PET 317                     Introduction to Solid State Electronics                                    2

6.         *GLT 315                    Hazard and Safety in the laboratory                                       3

7.         +PET 318                     Electrical Circuit Theory                                                         3

8.         *PET 319                     Physics Lab. Techniques and Practice I                                  3   

                                                                                                                                              22   .   

300 Level

SECOND SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                                 CREDIT

1.              +PET 329                Analytical Mechanics II                                                           2          2.              +PET 321                  Electromagnetic Wave & Option                                             2              

3.              +PET 322                Statistical & Thermal Physics                                                   2                                      

4.              +PET 324                Solid State Physics I                                                                 2

5.             +PET 326                 Complex Analysis                                                                   3

6.             *GLT 348                Instrumental Method of Analysis                                             3

7.             *GLT 323                Vacuum Physics and Thin Film Technology                            3         

8.             *PET 327                 Physics Lab. Techniques $ Practices                                        3

9.             +CED300                 Entrepreneurship                                                                     2  .

                                                                                                                                               22            

.400 Level

FIRST SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                                   CREDIT     

1.              +PET 414                Mathematics Method in Physics I                                            2       

2.              +PET 415                Computational Physics                                                            4              

3.             *PET 416                 Electrical Measurement And                                                    3

                                                Instrumentation                       

4.           +PET 417                   Digital Electronics                                                                    3      

5.           *PET 418                   Introduction & Telecommunication                                         3

                                                Systems

6.            +PET 419                  Quantum Mechanics I                                                  2

7.           *GLT 411                 Laboratory Organization and Management  I                            2

8.             +PET 410                 Atomic & Molecular Spectroscopy                                          3   .

                                                                                                                                             22   .

400 Level

SECOND SEMESTER

S/N      COURSE CODE                      COURSE TITLE                                                 CREDIT

1          *GLT 420                    Industrial Training Site Work Supervision                             4

2          *GLT 421                    Industrial Training University Supervision                             4

3          *GLT 422                    Industrial Training Student Report                                         4   .

                                                                                                                                             12  .

500 Level

FIRST SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                                CREDIT

1.              +PET 510                Mathematical Methods in Physics II                                        3                                  

2.              +PET 512                Electronic Devices: Designs & Fabrication                              2

3.              *PET 516                Seminar                                                                                   2     

4.              +PET 513                Nuclear and Particle Physics                                                    3

5.              +PET 514                Semiconductor Technology                                                     3

6.            *GLT 518                 Photography and Bio-Illustration                                             3         

7.            *PET 519                  Physics Lab. Tech. Practical II                                     3                 

8.              +PET 517               Quantum Mechanics1                                                              3

9.              +GLT517               Scientific Research and Communication                                  2                                  .                                                                                                                                  24

* Core Courses

500 Level

SECOND SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                          CREDIT

1.            *PET 521                  Project                                                                                     4      

2.              +PET 525                Fundamental of Energy Process                                               3              

3.            *GLT 527                 Lab. Organization and Management II                                     3

4.            *PET 528                  Mechanical Methods in Physics II                                           3

5.              +PET 529                Quantum Mechanics II                                                            2

6.             *PET 523                 Nuclear and Practical Physics                                                  2

7.               +PET 522               Solid State Physics II                                                               3   .

                                                                                                                                               20   .

CHEMICAL/PETROLEUM TECHNIQUES

COURSE CONTENT

300 LEVEL

FIRST SEMESTER

COURSE NO                                       COURSE TITLE                                              CREDITS

  1. +CPT 310                                Inorganic Chemistry II                                3
  2. +CPT 311                                Organic Chemistry II                                              3
  3. +CPT 312                                Physical Chemistry II                                              2
  4. *GLT 315                                Hazards and Safety in the Laboratory                     3
  5. *GLT 305                                Radiochemistry and Nuclear Chemistry                  3
  6. +CPT 313                                Applied Electricity and Magnetism                         3
  7. +CPT 314                                Polymer Science and Technology                           2

                                                                                                                            19

* Core Courses

300 LEVEL

SECOND SEMESTER

COURSE NO                           COURSE TITLE                                                          CREDITS

  1. +CPT 328                                Industrial Process Calculation                                 3
  2. +CPT 322                                Experimental (Physics II)                                        2
  3. +CPT 320                                Statistics for Physical Science & Engineering      2
  4. +CPT 327                                Applied Mechanics                                                 2
  5. CPT 324                                  Chemical Thermodynamics                                     3
  6. CPT 329                                  Metallurgy                                                               3
  7. *GLT348                                 Instrument Methods of Analysis                              3
  8. *GLT323                                 Vacuum Physics and Thin Film Technology         3
  9. CPT 326                                  Petrochemistry                                                         3
  10. CED300                                   Entrepreneurship                                                      2  

                                                                                                                                       26

400 LEVEL

FIRST SEMESTER

COURSE NO                           COURSE TITLE                                                          CREDITS

  1. CPT 417                      Particulate Mechanics                                                            2
  2. *GLT 418                    Chemical Laboratory Technology  II                                     2
  3. CPT 410                      Mass Transfer                                                                        3
  4. CPT 414                      Heat Transfer                                                                         3
  5. CPT 413                      Petroleum Production Technology                                         3
  6. CPT 416                      Technology of Fossil Fuel Processing                        3
  7. CPT 412                      Int. to transfer Processes                                                        3

8.       *GLT 411                   Laboratory Organisation and Management I                 2

9.         CPT 415                      Engineering Thermodynamics                                   3

                                                                                                                                      24

400 LEVEL

SECOND SEMESTER

COURSE NO                           COURSE TITLE                                                          CREDITS

  1. *GLT 420                    Industrial Training (Site Work Supervision)                           4
  2. *GLT 421                    Industrial Training (University Supervision)                          4
  3. *GLT 422                    Industrial Training (Student Report)                                       4

                                                                                                                                             12

500 LEVEL

FIRST SEMESTER

COURSE NO                           COURSE TITLE                                                          CREDITS

  1. CPT 518                      Environmental Technology                                                    3
  2. CPT 512                      Process Control                                                                      3
  3. CPT 513                      Process Optimization                                                             2
  4. *CPT 519                    Chemical Technology Laboratory III                                     2
  5. CPT 517                      Wood, Pulp and Paper Technology                                        2
  6. *GLT 518                    Photography and Illustration                                                  3           
  7. CPT 516                      Seminar                                                                                 2
  8. CPT 510                      Chemical Reaction Technology                                             3
  9. +GLT517                 Scientific Research and Communication                         2

                                                                                                                                                22

500 LEVEL

SECOND SEMESTER

COURSE NO                           COURSE TITLE                                                          CREDITS

  1. *GLT 527                    Laboratory Organization and Management II                         3
  2. CPT 522                      Process Design                                                           2
  3. CPT 523                      Biochemical Technology                                                       3
  4. *CPT 525                    Chemical Technology Laboratory IV                                     3
  5. *CPT 521                    Project                                                                                   4
  6. CPT 526                      Industrial Management                                                          2

                                                                                                                                        17 .   

* Core Courses

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES TECHNIQUES OPTION

300 Level

FIRST SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                           CREDIT

1.              BST 310                             Cell Biological & Histology                                    3  

2.              *GLT 315                           Hazards & Safety in the Laboratory                       3

3.              *GLT 305                           Radio Chemistry & Nuclear Chemistry                   2

4.              BST 317                             General Cytology                                                    3

5.              BST 315                             Seedless Plants                                            3

6.              BST 314                             Industrial Field Course 1                                         2       

7.              BST 318                             General Ecology                                                    3       

8.              BST 316                             General Physiology 1                                              3

9.              BIO 319                              Biological Techniques                                3

                                                                                                                                         26

300 Level

SECOND SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                              CREDIT

1               +BIO 320                           Statistics for Biological Science                               3

1.              BST 323                             General Entomology                                                3 

2.              BIO 328                              Mycology                                                                3

3.              BIO 327                              Microbial Genetics & Molecular Biology                 3                              

4.            *GLT 323                             Vacuum Physics & Thin Film Tech.                        3       

5.            *GLT 348                             Instrument methods of Analysis                              3 

  •         +CED300                              Entrepreneurship                                                    2

 7     +   BO20              Statistics for Biological Science                                                     20

400 Level

FIRST SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                  CREDIT

1.              BST 411                             Population Genetics                                     3                             2.           MBT 411                              Food Microbiology                                      3                       

3.              BST 416                             Biology of Pests of Stored Products             2 

                                                            & their Control     

4.              BST 412                             Principle of Storage Engineering                  2

5.         .  *GLT 411                         Laboratory Organisation and Management I 2

6.              BST 413                             Applied Parasitology 1                     3

7.              BST 414                             Soil Ecology                                                3

8.              BST 418                             Genetics                                                       3

9.              BST 417                             Molecular Biology                                       3

                                                                                                                               24

400 Level

SECOND SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                   CREDIT

1.              *GLT 420                             Industrial Training (Site Work                             4

                                                                        Supervisor)                   

2.              *GLT 421                             Industrial Training (University                            4

                                                            Supervisor                                      

3.              *GLT 422                              Industrial Training (Student                               4

                                                            (Report)                                                               12

500 Level

FIRST SEMESTER

S/N           COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                    CREDIT

1.              BST 510                             Advance Taxonomy of Angiosperm             3                           

2.              BST 511                             Vectors & Pests Management          3

3.              BST 517                             Economic Botany                                         2

4.            *BST 516                             Seminar                                                        2

6.            *GLT 518                             Photography & Bioillustration          3

7.              BST 513                           Food Processing, Storage and Preservation  3

8.            +GLT517                          Scientific Research and Communication        2

                                                                                                                                18         

500 Level

SECOND SEMESTER

S/N          COURSE CODE                 COURSE TITLE                                  CREDIT

1.              BST 529                             Applied Vectors & Pests Management       3                                             

2.            *BST 521                             Research Project                                           4 

3.              BST 520                             Systematic Biology                                       2

4.            *GLT 527                             Lab. Organisation & Management ll             3

5.              BST 525                                         Applied Storage Techniques           3

                                                                                                                               15

* Core Courses

CORE COURSES 300, 400 AND 500 LEVELS
GLT315 – HAZARDS AND SAFETY IN THE LABORATORY/LABORATORY MAINTENANCE AND FITTINGS
Accident and control measures
Common laboratory accidents/ injuries and their control measures, hazards and caution in the use of electricity supplies.
Causes of fire in the laboratory Precaution against fire and explosion and explosion. Action in an emergency involving fire and explosion and implosion. Burns and scalds. Types of fighting equipment.
First Aid Treatment
First aid treatment of more common injuries encountered in laboratories. Treatment of shocks. Dealing with the various bleeding, wounds, burns and poison, eye injuries.
First Aid Box
Description, construction, location and contents of first box.
Maintenance of Laboratory Equipment
Avoidance of waste improvising techniques. Installation of common laboratory equipment
(a) trouble shooting and faults finding (b) Serving and repair of common laboratory equipment.
Laboratory Fittings
Standard laboratory fittings and services; correct use and care. The necessity to clean and tidy benches and floors in the laboratory. Cleaning of different types of bench – top and flooring materials, identification and location of master switches and master gas cork. Color code of compressed gas cylinders, electrical resistors and for services lines, Precaution in handling and use of compressed air and liquefied gas cylinders.
GLT 348 – INSTRUMENT METHODS OF ANALYSIS
Spectroscopic techniques. Quantitative analysis. X-ray methods. Florescence methods Nuclear magnetic resonance electrons spin resonance. Refractormetry and interferometry. Polarimetry, marography.
GLT 305- RADIOCHEMISTRY AND NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY
Natural radio-actions, fusion, fission decay processes, nature of radiation. Nuclear models, energetic of nuclear reaction. Principles and measurement of radioactivity. Applications of radioactivity.
GLT 323- VACUUM PHYSICS AND THIN FILM TECHNOLOGY
Design and characteristics of vacuum systems; different types of vacuum pumps and their uses, measurement of low pressure, different types of pressure gauges, uses of valves and other vacuum materials. Industrial uses of vacuum ayatems, vacuum heating, furnaces, induction heating, electron bombardment heating.
Vacuum evaporation by various means, evaporation sources and techniques, substrate and surfaces preparation for thin film deposition in vacuum. Epitaial grow processes. Heat treatment for thin film, compatibility of film and substrates sputtering techniques, deposition of thin insulating films by r f. sputtering, preparation and uses of masks for thin film deposition. Characterization and application of thin films.
GLT 411 LABORATORY ORGANIZATIONS AND MANAGEMENT1
Planning and designs of laboratories. Ways of acquiring laboratory accommodation. Flexibility in laboratory design, special features of teaching, industrial, research and hospital laboratories. General space requirements:
laboratory layout: provision of services, floors windows, doors benches, cupboards drawers units, mechanical services- heating and ventilating fume, cupboards, lightening, electrical supplies, water suppliers, piped gases, safety in design; decoration, allocation of floor in multi-storey buildings.
Management of Stores
Stores policy, stores design and planning – storage of chemicals, hazardous materials, storage of apparatus, documentation.
Laboratory Administration
Technical information – filling systems, indexing systems, Dewey chemical classification, laboratory records – keeping, office facility and equipment, decision making – seeking advice, staff meetings advisory committee, meetings, formal committee meetings.
Maintenance of Laboratory Premises and Equipment
Planned maintenance – inspection of premises and equipment
Services Department and Special – Purposes Rooms
Glassware washing and sterilizing facilities, radioscope laboratories, photographic units, cold-rooms, animal houses, reprographic units, laboratory workshops, audio- visual aids – audio aids. Visual aids, glassblowing shops.
*GLT 518 PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATIONS
Concepts and fundamentals of photography cameras
The general principles, manipulation and care of different types of cameras in common use, their advantages and disadvantages.
Photomicrography: Projection and contact printing, choices and grades of paper, local control, finishing.
Colour photography principles of reversals and negative – positive process; type of materials, colour temperature, filters exposure.
Cine photograph
Cine photograph, use of 8mm cameral, video camera splicing and editing of commercially film.
Safety
Hazards in the use of photography reagents. Darkroom management.
*GLT 527 LABORATORY ORGANIZATION & MANAGEMENT II
Management Techniques and Function
The concept and relevance of management to laboratory practice. Meaning of organization. Supervisor Skills and management functions: planning; organizing; forecasting; motivating: coordination; controlling and communication etc. purchasing of laboratory materials; SOURCES OF FUNDS and different methods of purchasing. Preparation of purchasing orders. Receipt and storage of ordered materials. Issuing of material. Stock control management. Record keeping in the laboratory. Design and execution of scientific experiments. Scientific measurements and data collections. Literature search and retrieval. Factors affecting accuracy of experimental measurements. Preparation and presentation of experimental data – thesis/dissertation. Ways of presenting seminars. Selection and management of staff, Job description; the advertisement, application forms – references; interviewing and selection – final selection; contracts and conditions of service; induction; training and further education – motivation in technical education, recent DEVELOPMENTS in technical training and education, laboratory discipline: termination of employment Organization of Laboratory Practice.
Elements of law . Common and statutory laws and relevance to laboratory practice such as health and safety , welfare of employees, and cruelty to animals. Import and exercise duties. Nature of contract. Contract in relation to purchasing ` etc. legislating regulation the science laboratory practice in Nigeria (NISLT) Act No. 12 of 2003). Structure of NISLT and functions. Legal and professional responsibilities of technologists. Organization of laboratory services in Nigeria – public and private laboratories. Professional code of ethics.
Types of business organization. Small business development. Industrial relations
Health and Safety
The basic approach – The health and safety at work etc. Act of 1974; organization of laboratory safety – line management, safety officers, safety committees, codes of practice, general attitude to laboratory safety, accident books and records, notable accidents the hazard – fire escapes, fire prevention, fire- fighting equipment, fire drills, fire escapes, fire radiation and the use of radioactive substances; cylinders of compressed gas; centrifuges; cryogenic substances; physical injuries; chemical; occupational hygiene; dermatitis and skin reactions; toxic substances and threshold limit values; carcinogens; bacterial, viruses and other biohazards.
COURSE OUTLINE
100level
AEB 111 Introduction Animal and Environmental Biology (4 Credits, First Semester)
Man population growth and impact on the biosphere, Faunal biodiversity. Invertebrate: Protozoa, Porifera, Coelenterata, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Mollusca, Annelida, Anthropoda, Echinodermata.
Vertebrate: Cephalochordata, Pisces, Amphibia. Reptilia, Aves, Mammalia. Mammalian Anatomy: Anatomy of Rattus rattus
AEB 122 Functional Zoology (4 credits, second semester)
Embryology: Gametogenesis, fertilization and cleavage as demonstrated by amphioxus, Genetics: the cell-and distribution of genetic material mitosis, meiosis, Inheritance, sex, determination and sex-linked inheritance. Histology: Cells, tissues, organ formation and main features. Physiology: Functioning of mammalian skin, muscles/skeleton, alimentary system/nutritional requirements and deficiencies.
PBB 111: Introduction to Plant Biology I (3 Credits, First Semester)
Introduction to Botany. Prospects of a botanist. Diversity of living organisms and habits, life forms, mode of nutrition, size, shape e.g. common features of organisms. Need of arranging them into classification and possible evolutionary relationship among major groups of organisms. Need of arranging them into classification. Concepts of five kingdom and their characteristics and possible evolutionary relationship among major groups of organisms. A brief survey of bacteria, viruses, PPLO. Life cycle of algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and Angiosperms (2 lectures, 1 practical/week).
PBB 122: Introduction to Plant Biology II (3 Credits, Second Semester)
The general morphology, anatomy. Histology and physiology of flowering plants, seed structure, dispersal and germination, development of primary and secondary plant body, water relations, photosynthesis (2 lecturers, practical/week).

CHM 111: General Chemistry 1 (3 Credits First Semester)
a. Relationship of chemistry to other sciences. Atoms subatomic particles, isotopes, molecules, avogadro’s number. Mole concept. Dalton’s theory. Modern concept of atomic theory. Laws chemical combination. Relative atomic masses.
b. Introduction to nuclear reactions. Nuclear binding energy, fission and fusion reactions.
c. States of matter: Gas, gas laws. General gas equation. Liquids and Solids. Introduction lattice structure. Isomorphism. Giant molecules.
d. Introduction to the periodic table. Hydrogen and hydrides. Chemistry of groups O,I,II elements. Acid-base properties of oxides.

CHM 122: General Chemistry II (3 credits) Second Semester
Acid, bases and Salts. Quantitative and qualitative analysis. Theory of volumetric analysis – operations and methods. Calculation: Mole, Molarity. Behaviour of electrolytes. Water. Colligative properties. Ostwald’s dilution law. Arthenius, Bronsted-Lowry, Lewis concepts and application. Buffers introduction to reaction rates. Equillibria and equilibrium contants. Solubility products. Common effects. Precipitation reactions. Chemistry of Redox reactions.

CHM 113: Organic Chemistry I (3 Credits) First Semester
A. General Principles of Organic Chemistry Department
i. Introduction: Definition of Organic Chemistry. Classification of organic compounds. Homologous series. Functional groups.
ii. General procedure for isolation and purification of organic compound
iii. Determination of structure of organic compounds. Elemental analysis percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula, structural formula.
iv. Isomerism: Structural isomerism and stereo isomerism.
v. Electronic theory in organic chemistry: Atomic models. Quantum numbers, atomic orbital. Hybridization leading to formation of carbon, carbon single, double and triple bonds. Hydrogen bonding electronegativity, dipole moment polarization, bond energy. Inductive and resonance effects.
B. Non-polar functional Group Chemistry
i. Alkanes: Structural and physical properties. Substitution actions including mechanism.
ii. Alkenes: Structural and physical properties. Reaction: addition (of H2, X2, HX, H2O, O3, etc).; oxidation polymerization. Stereoisomerism – definition, geometrical and optical isomers. Conditions for optical isomerism.
iii. Alkynes: Structure. Acidity of acetylenic hydrogen. Reaction: addition of H2X2, H2O, etc. test for alkynes.
iv. Benzene: Structure and aromaticity of Benzene. Introduction to electrophilic substitution reactions.
C.
i. Numeclature: Common (trivial) names. IUPAC names of classes of compounds.
ii. Introduction to petrochemistry: Origin of petroleum. Importance, fractional distillation of crude oil, components properties and uses. Octane number, cracking.
iii. Coal tar chemistry: Origin, production, important components and uses.

CHM 124 Organic Chemistry II (3 credits) Second Semester
A. Polar Function Group Chemistry
i. Hydroxyl Group: – Alcohols and phenols. Classification Acidity–comparison. Important methods of preparation. Reaction: with metals bases. Alkyl halide. Oxidation, dehydration. Tests for alcohols and phenols. Importance.
ii. Carbonyl Group: – Aldehydes and ketone structure: physical properties methods of preparation. Reaction: Tollen’s reagent. Fehling’s alcohols, including mechanisms, with ammonia, hydrazine and derivatives, including mechanisms, aldol condensation. Tests for aldehydes and ketone. Importance.
iii. Carboxylic Group: – Monocarboxylic acids. Structure. Physical properties. Acidity and resonance. Important methods of preparation from alcohols, aromatic hydrocarbons through Grignard’s reagent. Reaction with bases. Conversion to esters, amides, halide and anhydrides. Tests for carboxylic acid. Importance.
iv. Carboxylic Group: – anhydrides, acid halides. Esters and amides. Change of reactivity when –OH of acid is replaced by –OCOR, -X, -OR, -NR2. Reactions with water, alcohols, ammonia and amines, LAIH4, NaBH4. Test for esters.
v. Amino group: – Amines. Structure. Physical properties. Important methods of preparation. Reaction with; acids bases, basicity and salt formation: Alkylation acylation: with nitrous acids. Heinseberg methods of separation. Test for amines importance.
B. Miscellaneous Topics
i. Fats and oils: – Definition, importance, saponification. Soaps and detergents. Mode of cleaning action. Use in paints and vanishes.
ii. Amino acids, proteins – Definition, classification, essential amino acids, special properties and reactions, isoelectric points, pests. Importance.
iii. Carbohydrates: – Definition, classification, importance nomenclature. Structure and reactions of glucose mutarotation tests.
iv. Natural products: – Main classes (other than lipids, carbohydrates and proteins); steroids terpenoids, alkaloids, prostaglandins definition, importance, examples.
MTH 112 Calculus (3 credits) First Semester
1) Elementary functions of a single real variable and their graphs, limits and the idea of continuity. Graphs of simple functions. Polynomial, rational, trigonometric etc. rate of change, tangent and normal on a curve.
2) Differentiation: As limit of rate of change of elementary functions, product, quotient function of function rules. Implicit differentiation, differentiation of trigonometric, inverse trigonometric functions and of exponential for any index.
3) Stationary values of simple functions: maxima, minima and points of inflexion, area of surface of revolution.
4) Integration as an inverse of differentiation. Integration of harder functions: integration by substitution and by parts. Definite integrals: volume of revolution, area of surface of revolution.

Suitability: A, B, C1 C2, D
MTH 123 Vectors Geometry and Statistics (3 credits) Second Semester
1) Types of vectors points, line and relative vectors. Geometrical representation of vectors in 1–3 dimension. Addition of vectors and multiplication by a scale. Components of vectors in 1.3 dimensions direction cosines. Linear independence of vectors. Points of divisions of a line.
2) Scalar and vector products of two vectors. Simple application. Two dimensional coordinate geometry: straight lines, angle between two lines, distance between points. Equation of circle, tangent and normal to a circle.

Properties of parabola, ellipse, hyperbola. Straight lines and planes in space: direction cosine; angle between lines, and between lines and planes: distance of a point from a plane: distance between two skew lines.

PHY 100 Practical Physics (2 Credits)
Students are expected to carry out a minimum of 12 major experiments covering the main aspects of the courses taken in the year.

PHY 111 Mechanics, Thermal Physics & Props of Matter (3 Credits)
1) Mechanics: Scalars and Vectors: Addition and resolution of vectors. Rectilinear motion and Newton’s law of motion. Inertial mass and gravitational mass; free fall; projectile motion: deflecting forces and circular motion. Newton’s law of gravitation; satellites, escape velocity. Gravitational potential; potential well; special case of circular motion. Momentum and the conservation of a momentum. Work, power energy; units. Potential energy for a gravitational field and elastic bodies, kinetic energy conservation of energy; energy stored in a rotating body. Kinetic energy in elastic and inelastic collisions.

2) Thermal Physics and Properties of Matters: Temperature, heat, work, heat capacities; second law, carnot cycle: thermodynamic ideal gas temperature scale. Thermal conductivity; radiation; black body and energy spectrum, Stetan’s law. Kinetic model of a gas: Equation of state, concept of diffusion mean free path. Molecular speeds, Avogadro’s number, behavior of real gasses.
A model for a solid: inter-particle forces in solids and gasses; physical properties of solids. Crystalline structure. Close packing orderly arrangements, elastic deformation of an ordered structure; interference patterns and crystals.
Model for matter: Surface energy and surface tension, plastic deformation; thermal and electrical properties of metals.

PHY 113 Vibration, Waves and Optics (3 Credits)

Periodic Motion
Periodic motion of an oscillator: velocity and acceleration of a sinusoidal oscillation, equation of motion of a simple harmonic oscillator: damped oscillation; forced oscillation; resonance propagation of longitudinal and transverse vibrations.
Wave behavior; reflection of waves, propagation of straight and circular pulses; fiber optics, diffraction, refraction, dispersion, interference, coherence, polarization.
Wave and light: mirrors, lenses, formation of images, lenses in contact microscope, telescope; chromatic and spherical aberration and their reduction.
Dispersion by prism; relation between colour and wavelength; spectra.

200 Level
FIRST SEMESTER
CSC 210: INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SCIENCE (2 Credits)
History of computer, Functional components of a computer, Characteristics of computer systems. Board introduction of programming methodologies. Emphasis is on problem solving strategies and techniques for developing/documenting computer application, including principles of structured programming, problem decomposition, problem organization, use of procedural abstraction and basic debugging skills. Basic programing languages as a tool. General introduction to computer programing. Emphasis on learning to write programs to solve problems in familiar applications such as payroll, computer assisted instruction, ecology, library science etc. introduction to Microsoft excel: Basic operation in MS excel, using spread shhet to generate table and plot charts. Solving equations using MS-Excel.

SLT 216: BIOLOGY LABORATORY TECHNIQUES 1(2 Credits)

  1. Microscopy
    Types – simple and compound microscopes, range, setting and illumination.
    Care, maintenance and storage of microscopes
    Use of stage and ocular micrometer.
    Care and use of dissecting lens and microscopes, collection, preparation, transportation, maintenance and preservation of biological specimen (animal and plant materials).
  2. Staining and staining techniques and histochemistry methods.
    Theory and application of stains. The functions of dyes and impregnation. Principal stains including natural and synthetic stains. Principles of methods for Histochemistry.
  3. Haematological and serological Techniques
    Blood types of blood cells, structures, characteristics and formation, plasma and serum, immunoglobulin’s (antibodies), antigen-antibody reactions. Collection of blood samples and labeling, making of smears and staining, counting of blood cells, Haemoglobin estimation Packed cell volume estimation. The significance of blood groups.
  4. Fixative: Types and Function of fixative for plant and animal tissues.
  5. Tissue processing.
  6. Microtomy
    Types, use and care of microtomes. Honing, stropping and storage of microtome knives. Cutting of paraffin sections, frozen sections and cryostat section, Adhesives – types and preparation, method of attachment of section of slides.

SLT 214: GLASS TECHNOLOGY(3 Credits)
The origin and nature of glass, simple analysis of glass composition. Types of glass commonly used in the laboratory. Properties of different glasses commonly used in the laboratories. Identification of glass by physical, flame and chemical methods. Design of glassblowing workshop. Identification of various tools and equipment used in the glass blowing workshops. The use of non – return valve and didymian goggles. Hazards of glassblowing, safety measures and regulation. Glass tubing storage. Construction of simple glass apparatus. Glass cutting and various types of glass cutting techniques. Manipulation of simple glass blowing tools and machines.
Burners: surface and premix burners. “point Pulling” and various methods of glass manipulations. End deals for making test tables. Blow bulbs at thaw ends and in the middle of glass tubes. Butts seals of various diameters. Bends for delivering tubes and manometers. Tee joints and the attendant problems, ring deals. Strains and stress, annealing and strain-viewer.

PPT 211: INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACOLOGY(2 Credits)
The link between physiology and pharmacology. Deflation of pharmacology, drugs etc sources and typed of drugs. Classification, sites and mechanisms of drugs action. Drug receptors and interaction of agonists and antagonist. Methods of drug administration. Principles of drug absorption. Drug biotransformation. Drug excretion.

PPT 212 – TOXICOLOGY (2 Credits)
Mechanisms of drug toxicity, management of acute drug poisoning, plant, bacterial and animal poisons; solvent poisoning; pesticides; Herbicides; Radiation toxicology; Airborne poisoning; Heavy metals and chelating agents, food additives.

MBT 213: MICROBIAL PHYSIOLOGY/BIOCHEMISTRY (2 Credits)
Microbial growth: changes in cell population and macromolecular composition during the growth process. Growth under nutrient-limiting and non limiting conditions. Microbial metabolism. Carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism. Metabolic enzymes, sources of reducing power, energy yields bio-synthetic intermediates and products. Structure and functions of cell membranes. Transport systems in the microbial cell regularity mechanisms in microbial metabolism

GMT 217: GENERAL GEOLOGY (2 Credits)
The nature and scope of Geology. Earth materials: minerals and rocks igneous activity and igneous rocks: Sediments and Sedimentary rocks; Metamorphism and Metamorphic rocks. Development of fundamental geological concepts of time. The geologic time scale. Surface processes, Erosion and Mass movement; The geological work of underground water, streams, glaciers and wind. The oceans and shore line; structure of the Earth. Rock deformation and structure features of deformed rocks.

SLT 215: INSTRUMENTATION/MAINTENANCE(3 Credits)
(a) Electrical and Electronic components – Electrical quantities, Ohm’s Law in circuitry, resistors, capacitors, semi-conductors l transducers; photo emissive, photo-multipliers and photodiodes.
(b) Measuring instruments – Analytical, Audio-Visual, and diagnostics. Care and safety; practical use of measuring instruments.
(c) Study of components Layout: Circuit training, referring to manufacturer’s data. Reading circuit diagrams, repair differential electronic devices.
(d) Maintenance, services, and repair procedures of electric devices, electrical and electronic circuits, circuit diagrams and designs, types of maintenance. Factors affecting maintenance. Corrective maintenance.
(e) Power supplies.
(f) Recorders
(g) Trouble shooting and fault finding – service tests, fault location and rectification.
(h) Basic definition electrical fundamentals, operational Amplifiers, transducers; resistive, I capacitive, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, thermoelectric, photoelectric, Atom, Molecules, and Crystals, Energy level, Valence and conduction band, semi, level, intrinsic and extrinsic I and semi conductors, majority and minority carriers; the semi-conductors, diode, the transistor, the junction field and effect transistors, Filters, voltage regulators, transistor amplifier; the operation.
(i) Introduction to interior design and final sub-circuit in the laboratory, lighting, glare planning of lighting installation in the laboratory, lighting economics, Maintenance of fluorescent fittings, switching installation in the laboratory. Final sub-circuit.

SECOND SEMESTER
SLT 223: GENERAL LAB. TECHNIQUES (3 Credits)

  1. Hazards and caution against the use of electricity supplies
  2. Causes of fire in laboratory. Precautions against the fire and explosion. Action in an emergency involving fire, explosion and implosion. Types and operation of fire fighting equipment.
  3. First aid treatment of more common injuries encountered in chemical laboratories, physics laboratory and dark rooms.
  4. Setting up and of practical classes and demonstrations.
  5. Organizing an exhibition of laboratory equipment.
  6. Use and care of fume cupboards, hoods and safety screens. Precaution for eyes, hands and body.
  7. Water bath, constant level devices, oil bath, heating mantles, heating tapes, laggoing and TM insulation. Thermostat heaters, cool baths, metal liquid baths – Alloy of low melting points flame and burners.
  8. Drying agents – removal of water. Phosphorus pent oxides, sulphates of sodium, calcium and magnesium.
  9. Calcium chloride, magnesium perchlorate, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide as drying agents.
  10. Operation and maintenance of optical projectors, still, cline and overhead projectors. Types of screens.
  11. Operation and maintenance of sound amplifying and recording equipment.
  12. Identification and location of master switches and master gas corks. Colour code of compressed gas cylinders and for service lines. Precautions in handling and use of compressed air and liquefied gas cylinders.

SLT 224: Chemistry Practical (3 Credits)

SLT 221: Practical Physics (3 Credits)

SLT 225: WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY (3 Credits)
General safety rules and regulations in the workshop with emphasis on the following elements; workers, working tools, machines and working environment.

Introduction to Simple Woodwork Practice
Woodwork tools and equipment – types and uses various types of woodwork joints and uses. Basis types or wood and use. Wood seasoning and applications in the laboratory.

Introduction to Simple Metal Work Practice
Metalwork tools and equipment – types and uses. Metals in use in engineering industry – ferrous and non-ferrous Castings, (Mode of production and basic applications) Bench-work practice-cutting, chopping , filling and use of taps and dies. Bench drilling machine-parts operators and users. Arc and gas welding processes
Scope of Practical Work
Woodwork practical designed by lecturers test student dexterity in woodwork joint and wood shaping processes such as tee square, drawing board, photo frames, chilling’s saving boxes etc. Metalwork practical designed by
lecturers to test student dexterity in bench-work, drilling machine and lathe work practice such as male and female mating of parts.

SLT 226: ENGINEERING DRAWING (3 Credits)
Introduction: Types of engineering drawing, Draughting materials and equipment.
Types of lines and lettering, geometrical constructions, principle of tangency, loci, orthographic projection. geometrical, constructions.
Construction of slopes. Tapers and gradients. Fundamentals of descriptive geometry and projection drawing. Central, parallel, azonometric and orthographic projections. Projection of points, lines, planes figures and simple objects. True length.
Orthographic projections of simple geometrical solids. Cylinder, cone, pyramid, prism, sphere, hemisphere, ring. Drawing of three orthographic projections in first angle from the isometric views of a detail. Non-circular curves. Construction of an ellipse, parabola, hyperbole of sinusoid, spiral of Archimedes, involute, cycloid, epirydoid, hypocycloid.

SLT 227 – BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY TECHNIQUES AND PRACTICE II (3 Credits)
(a) Preparation of physiological salt solution and buffer solution for use in physiology and pharmacology.
(b) Dilution methods of drugs. Aeration systems and temperature control.
(c) Surgical instruments: use and care of catheters, cannular, respiratory pumps, mercury manometers.
(d) The recorders (Polygraphs) Care and use of transducers
(e) Recording and measurement of physiological changes.
(f) Study of electronic and photoelectric equipment commonly used in laboratories and their applications.
(g) Preparation and measurement of buffer solutions. Buffering of perfusion fluids and other biological fluids.

Microbiological Techniques
(a) Equipments: Types, use, care and maintenance
(b) Preparation of culture media and the methods used in the culture of micro-organisms-agar; Broth and similar culture medias.
(c) Dangers of infection in handling live cultures of micro-organisms
(d) Correct methods of disposal of pathogenic materials.
(e) Preparation of materials for sterilization
(f) Culture maintenance
(g) Sterile areas and rooms
(h) Aseptic techniques

BCT 222: INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY (3 Credits)
Chemistry of amino acids; proteins and their derivatives: methods of isolation and identification, acidity and alkalinity, pH and PK values and their effects on cellular activities; Buffers. Chemistry/structures of Carbohydrate, lipids and nucleic, acids, Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and quaternary structures.
The physical properties of protoplasm, pH and buffers, Amino acids proteins carbohydrates and lipids. Enzymes action, glycolysis and substrate level phosphorylation. Nature and properties of the bacterial and higher plant cell walls. The organelles and their functions.

AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION
GEOLOGY OPTION
300 LEVEL
*GLT 305- RADIOCHEMISTRY AND NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY(3 Credits)
Natural radio-actions, fusion, fission decay processes, nature of radiation. Nuclear models, energetic of nuclear reaction. Principles and measurement of radioactivity. Applications of radioactivity

GMT 310: STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY (1-0) (3 CREDITS)
Introduction to mechanics of rock deformation, forces, stress and strain, rock properties and environmental factors affecting deformation e.g. pressure, temperature, time, grandsire, mineral composition, fluid contents. Folding and classification of folds, linear and planar structure in taconitesl faults and joint.
GMT 312: MICRO PALEONTOLOGY AND PALYNOLOGY (1-3) (3 CREDITS)
Fossils and fossil preservations. Morphology. Wall structure, general classification, general distribution and evolution of foraminifera. Introduction to plant kingdom. Primary structure, classification, species, gems etc. Stratigraphic zonation. Micropaleontologyical techniquie extraction, concentration, sorting and curration, maceration techniques of polynological sample. Pollen grain and spores, dinoflageHate etc.

GMT 313: INVERTEBRATE PALAEONTOLGY(3 Credits)
Characteristics, identification of major phyla: Celenterates, Echnodermata, Mollusca, Brachiopoda and Anthropoda. Their evolution, palaeontology and stratigraphic importance. Techniques in fossil collection, cleaning and display; staining etc.

GMT 314: INTRODUCTION TO FIELD GEOLOGY (FIELDTRIP) (3 CREDIT)
Instruction in the techniques of field observation and the recording of geological data in the field. Identification of common rock types in the field. The duration of the field exercise one-week and each student is expected to submit a writing report at the end of the course.

GMT 315 SEDIMENTOLOGY
Origin of sediments and sedimentary rocks, sedimentary processes, quantitative and statistical study of texture; structure and composition of sedimentary rocks, description of sedimentary rocks, study records. Petrography study of sedimentary rocks under the polarizing microscope.

GMT 316 STRATIGRAPHY AND GEOCHRONOLOGY
Concepts of chrono, litho-bio-stratigraphy classification, terminology and correlation. Facies analysis, origin and revolution of sedimentary basins, geohistory analysis. Principles of geochronology, Rb/Sr, K/Ar and U/Pb dating methods. Stable isotopes; Pre-cambrian geochronology; Pre-Cambrian of Nigeria.

*GLT 315 – HAZARDS AND SAFETY IN THE LABORATORY/ LABORATORY MAINTENANCE AND FITTINGS (3 Credits)
Accidents and control measures. First Aid Treatment. First Aid Box. Maintenance of Laboratory Equipment. Laboratory Fittings.
GMT 321: PETROLOGY OF IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS (1-3) (3 CREDIT)
Nature of magma and classification of igneous rock, crystallization of igneous minerals from various silicate mealts. Brown reaction series: Factors of metamorphism grade and facies with emfacies on P-T condition effect, Metamorphic rock types, minerals and textures. Practical would involve identification of common igneous and metamorphic rocks; use of petrography microscope maintenance.

GMT 322: SEDIMENTOLOGY (1-3) (3 CREDITS)
Introduction and historical review of transportation of sedimentary rocks. Rocks practice and agent of transportation. Information of sedimentary rocks and their classification. Seminentary structures. Different environments of sediment deposition.
Practical to include: Techniques in sample collection for laboratory analysis; mechanical grain size analysis of clastic sediments; pipette analysis of mud or clay fraction, Heavy mineral analysis etc.
*GLT 323- VACUUM PHYSICS AND THIN FILM TECHNOLOGY(3 Credits)
Design and characteristics of vacuum systems; different types of vacuum pumps and their uses, measurement of low pressure, different types of pressure gauges, uses of valves and other vacuum materials. Industrial uses of vacuum ayatems, vacuum heating, furnaces, induction heating, electron bombardment heating.
Vacuum evaporation by various means, evaporation sources and techniques, substrate and surfaces preparation for thin film deposition in vacuum. Epitaial grow processes. Heat treatment for thin film, compatibility of film and substrates sputtering techniques, deposition of thin insulating films by r f. sputtering, preparation and uses of masks for thin film deposition. Characterization and application of thin films.

GMT 324 – GEOLOGY OF NIGERIA [3 credit].
The major tectonic elements of Nigeria; their classification and structural development resources, occurrence distribution and economic significance.

*GLT 348 – INSTRUMENT METHODS OF ANALYSIS (3 Credits)
Spectroscopic techniques. Quantitative analysis. X-ray methods. Florescence methods Nuclear magnetic resonance electrons spin resonance. Refractormetry and interferometry. Polarimetry, marography.

GMT 329 EXPLORATION AND MINING GEOLOGY
Definition and scope of mineral exploration. Mode of occurrence and factors controlling ore disposition. Concepts of ore search. Reconnaissance and detailed exploration techniques – geological, geochemical and geophysical. Types of drilling and machinery. Roles of geologist in drilling. Ore s\reserve estimation and classification. Mining and mining methods. Factors controlling the choice of mining methods. Geological mapping and surveying of open-pit and underground mines. Roles of geologist in mining. Introduction to mineral economics. Mineral rights and mining law.

400 LEVEL COURSES ( First Semester )
GMT 411: MAP INTERPRETATION (1-3 (4 CREDITS)
Geologic map. Width of outcrops of strata: measurement of strikes and dip in outcrop patterns. Three points problem:- Unconformities; section drawing and interpretation of sequence of events. Problems will be based on simple hypothetical maps.

*GLT 411 LABORATORY ORGANIZATIONS AND MANAGEMENTI (2 Credits)
Planning and designs of laboratories. Ways of acquiring laboratory accommodation. Flexibility in laboratory design, special features of teaching, industrial, research and hospital laboratories. General space requirements:
laboratory layout: provision of services, floors windows, doors benches, cupboards drawers units, mechanical services- heating and ventilating fume, cupboards, lightening, electrical supplies, water suppliers, piped gases, safety in design; decoration, allocation of floor in multi-storey buildings.
Management of Stores
Stores policy, stores design and planning – storage of chemicals, hazardous materials, storage of apparatus, documentation.

Laboratory Administration
Technical information – filling systems, indexing systems, Dewey chemical classification, laboratory records – keeping, office facility and equipment, decision making – seeking advice, staff meetings advisory committee, meetings, formal committee meetings.

Maintenance of Laboratory Premises and Equipment
Planned maintenance – inspection of premises and equipment
Services Department and Special – Purposes Rooms
Glassware washing and sterilizing facilities, radioscope laboratories, photographic units, cold-rooms, animal houses, reprographic units, laboratory workshops, audio- visual aids – audio aids. Visual aids, glassblowing shops.

GMT 413: MINERALOGY (3 CREDITS)
The nature of mineral; physical and chemical properties of minerals, morphological crystallography; atomic structure of rock forming minerals with emphasis on the practical silicates. Use of the polarizing microscope to analyse characteristic minerals in thin section, megascopic identification and description of mineral particularly hand specimen examination of rock forming minerals.
GMT 414 – GEOCHEMISTRY (3 CREDITS)
Origin of the earth and the solar system structure and composition of the earth distribution of elements in cosmic system, metaborites lithosphere, hydrosphere biosphere and atmosphere. Geochemistry of different rock types [igneous; sedimentary and metamorphic rock] weathering and soil formation.
Practical would involve discussion of techniques of rock sample preparation for silicate analysis. Use of analysis equipment.

GMT 415 – PHOTOGEOLOGY [0-3] [2 credits].
Study of aerial photographs. Stereoscopic vision and stereoscopic photographs. Litho logical interpretation; sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks. Stratigraphic interpretation of conformable and uncomfortable strata; structural interpretation.
Maintenance of pocket stereoscopic and aerial photographs in mineral exploration and site investigation.

GMT: 410 ECONOMIC GEOLOGY [3 credits]
The concept of metallogeny. Metallogenic provinces in Nigeria. The geology and distribution of Nigeria clays. Limestone, marble, gypsum, barite and construction materials. Evaluation of mining prospects methods of sampling. Calculation and classification of ore reserves. Mineral economics and mining polices

GMT 412: ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY [3 credit]
Source, hazard and controls of pollution. Geological hazard; their prediction controls and mitigation. Environment impact of mining activities. Underground and undersea storage of petroleum and nuclear waste materials.

GMT 416: Engineering Geology I
Engineering properties of rocks, concrete, aggregate and quarrying techniques; elements of soil mechanics; geological site investigation, foundation; dams, influence of groundwater on engineering project slopes, roads, rail roads, dams and reservoir. Method of ground improvement – grouting, compaction, anchoring, drainage. Aquifers and types, ground water exploration and exploitation techniques; hydrochemistry. Case histories of basement complete hydrogeology. Applications of geophysical methods in shallow groundwater development (including springs); water quality physical, chemical and biological parameters. Effect of groundwater on rocks and soil as construction materials and sites.

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING [6 months – Second Semester]
The SIWES programe shall be undertaken in suitable laboratories in medical/public or industrial laboratories. A talk on experience during industrial attachment will be presented orally and in written form.
*GLT 420 – Industrial Training (Site work Supervision) (4 Credits)
*GLT 421 – Industrial Training (University Supervision) (4 Credits)
*GLT 422 – Industrial Training (Student Report) (4 Credits)

500 LEVEL
GMT 510: FIELD GEOLOGY [4 credits].
Independent geological field mapping of a selected area lasting a minimum of 2 weeks during long vacation.

A written report of the field exercise must be submitted by students at the end of the first semester. The report is to be accompanied by a geological map of the area. Pre-requistite (STG/GLT 410 and 411)

GMT 511: ADVANCE GEOLOGICAL LABORATORY TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCES (1-3) (4 CREDITS)
Advance laboratory techniques in micropaleontology and polynology, the preparation of reagents and their application in the extraction and of concentration of microgossils. Handing of chemicals and ragents magnetic separator and its uses. Use of Engineering and Hydrogeological Equipment. Collection of rock specimens; thin section preparation of rocks; Repairs and impregnation: Impregnation of dry and wet specimens; Roack crusing; grinding and polishing techniquesl digestion of crushed rocks for chemical analysis methods of rock analysis using a selected equipment e.g. (A.A. S.equipment etc)
Handling boreholes samples (ditch cuttings, core sample and sidewell samples); logging of boreholes samples, methods in grain size analysis, heavy minerals separation techniques. Maintenance of microscopes, rock cutting and crushing machines etc. Common Geological Equipment and its uses; Geological Hammers, chisel clinometers and
compasses; GPS. Hand lens, camera and other useful field equipment; etc Fieldwork and laboratory safety kit; collecting equipment for specimen, labels recording equipment.

GMT 514 GEOPHYSICS (1 -3) (3 CREDITS)
Introduction to common geophysical exploration methods. Application of magnetic, electrical resistivity. Sesmic and radio-active method in minerals, petroleum and water exploration.
Use and maintenance of common geophysical equipment. Field practice using at least one common geophysical tool (e.g. abem terrameter) in data collection.

  • GMT 516: SEMINAR (2 CREDITS)
  • GMT 521: GEOLOGY PROJECT (4 CREDITS)
    Individual research project selected by the various students from any of the various fields of applied geology to be carried from any of the supervision of on or more of the academic staff of the Department: The project may involved literature survey, field investigation, experimental and statistical data acquisition and analysis. The project must be submitted at least four weeks before the final degree examination. A student is required to prepare and deliver a seminar on classical topical issues and problems in Geology centered on his project area.

GMT 512: ENGINEERING AND HYDROGEOLOGY [1-3] [3CREDITS]
Geologist and engineer. Classification of soils and rocks for engineering purpose. Index and Engineering properties of soils and rocks. Consolidation and settlement. Bearing capacity; Strength characteristics of soil and rock. Factors affecting rock durability.
Groundwater utilization. Hydrologic cycle. Groundwater occurrence factors influencing It. Groundwater distribution in different rock types. Elementary well hydraulics. Water well development.

GMT 513: MARINE GEOLOGY[3 credits]
Physical chemical and biological oceanography sampling of ocean floor.
Structure and physiograph of ocean basins. Origin distribution and age of marine sediments. Mineral resources of the ocean floor coastal erosion and management.

*GLT 518 PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATIONS (3 Credits)
Concepts and fundamentals of photography cameras
The general principles, manipulation and care of different types of cameras in common use, their advantages and disadvantages.

Photomicrography: Projection and contact printing, choices and grades of paper, local control, finishing.
Colour photography principles of reversals and negative – positive process; type of materials, colour temperature, filters exposure.

Cine photograph
Cine photograph, use of 8mm cameral, video camera splicing and editing of commercially film.
Safety
Hazards in the use of photography reagents. Darkroom management.

*GLT 527 LABORATORY ORGANIZATION & MANAGEMENT II (3 Credits)
Management Techniques and Function
The concept and relevance of management to laboratory practice. Meaning of organization. Supervisory skills and management functions: planning; organizing; forecasting; motivating: coordination; controlling and communication etc. purchasing of laboratory materials; SOURCES OF FUNDS and different methods of purchasing. Preparation of purchasing orders. Receipt and storage of ordered materials. Issuing of material. Stock control management. Record keeping in the laboratory. Design and execution of scientific experiments. Scientific measurements and data collections. Literature search and retrieval. Factors affecting accuracy of experimental measurements. Preparation and presentation of experimental data – thesis/dissertation. Ways of presenting seminars. Selection and management of staff
Job description; the advertisement, application forms – references; interviewing and selection – final selection; contracts and conditions of service; induction; training and further education – motivation in technical education, recent DEVELOPMENTS in technical training and education, laboratory discipline: termination of employment. Organization of Laboratory Practice Elements of law . Common and statutory laws and relevance to laboratory practice such as health and safety , welfare of employees, and cruelty to animals. Import and exercise duties. Nature of contract. Contract in relation to purchasing etc. legislating regulation the science laboratory practice in Nigeria (NISLT) Act No. 12 of 2003). Structure of NISLT and functions. Legal and professional responsibilities of technologists. Organization of laboratory services in Nigeria – public and private laboratories. Professional code of ethics.
Types of business organization. Small business development. Industrial relations
Health and Safety
The basic approach – The health and safety at work etc. Act of 1974; organization of laboratory safety – line management, safety officers, safety committees, codes of practice, general attitude to laboratory safety, accident books and records, notable accidents the hazard – fire escapes, fire prevention, fire- fighting
equipment, fire drills, fire escapes, fire radiation and the use of radioactive substances; cylinders of compressed gas; centrifuges; cryogenic substances; physical injuries; chemical; occupational hygiene; dermatitis and skin reactions; toxic substances and threshold limit values; carcinogens; bacterial, viruses and other biohazards.

GMT 522: EXPLORATION GEOCHEMISTRY (3 Credits)
Introduction to the application of geochemistry in mineral exploration. Principle of geochemistry dispersion and reconcentration in rocks and Ore system. Primary dispersion geochemical soil and drainage surveys.
Lithgeochemical survey plotting statistical analysis and interpretation of geochemical data. Geochemical survey in integrated mineral exploration programme practical will include field and laboratory analysis of geochemical samples.

GMT 527 ENERGY RESOURCES (3 Credits)
Introduction to energy resources; external sources, the earth’s internal heat. Secondary resources. Photosynthesis and fossil fuel, the fossil fuels bank. Global perspective of energy resources, the growth of energy demand, global requirement and distribution.

GMT 529 REMOTE SENSING II (3 Credits)
Review of basic concepts in Remote Sensing. Acquisition of remotely…. Site investigations: principles and methods – tunneling, drilling and sampling techniques, geological maps. Erosion problems and materials quality control.

GMT 520 GENESTONE TECHNOLOGY (3 Credits)
CASE HISTORIES: Applied geology methods exploration, systematic study of economic mineral deposits: ferrous, metals and their alloys (iron, manganese, columbite, tantalite, tungsten, molybdenum, nickel, cobalt, chromium, titanium); non-ferrous metals (Copper, lead, zinc, aluminum, tin); precious metals (gold, silver, platinum); radioactive elements (uranium, thorium).
Minerals deposits in Nigeria – metallic, non-metallic, radioactive, industrial rocks and minerals in nigeria (Talc, clay, limestone, marble, asbestos, serpentine, e.t.c.), their possible uses in industry. Basement complex metallogeny – spatial distribution; perspects of future. Methods of acquisition and exploitation on mineral deposits in Nigeria.
MICROBIOLOGY 300 LEVEL COURSE OUTLINE;.

*GLT 305- RADIOCHEMISTRY AND NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY (3 Credits)
Natural radio-actions, fusion, fission decay processes, nature of radiation. Nuclear models, energetic of nuclear reaction. Principles and measurement of radioactivity. Applications of radioactivity

MBT 311-GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY I (3 Credits)
Historical aspects of Microbiology with emphasis on the place of microorganisms in the world’ Types of microorganisms – bacteria, viruses, fungi, rikittsiae, Chlamydia, algae etc. growth and reproduction of microorganism. Sterilization and disinfection; control of microorganism by physical and chemical methods.

*STM 315 – HAZARDS AND SAFETY IN THE LABORATORY/ LABORATORY MAINTENANCE AND FITTINGS (3 Credits)
Accidents and control measures. First Aid Treatment. First Aid Box. Maintenance of Laboratory Equipment. Laboratory Fittings.

MBT 316 – MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY (3 Credits)
Pathogenic bacteria, fungi viruses of both human and veterinary importance. Concept of pathogenecity and virulence with respect to development of diseases.
Clinical samples: pus, urine, CSF, blood aspirates, faeces – handling and laboratory processing methods.

MBT 317 – MICROBIOLOGY TECHNIQUES I (3 Credits)
Staining techniques, sterilization techniques, preparation and uses of buffer, cell suspension, centrifugation and diluting fluids. Microscope, preparation of microscope slides, photometer, colorimeter; chromatography, conductorimetry, centrifugation, experimental design and data interpretation; preparation of reports.

MBT 310 – BACTERIOLOGY (3 Credits)
Concept and historical perspective of Bacteriology, Gross morphology of bacteria cells; structure of bacterial, Relationship between size and metabolism of bacteria; Nutrition in bacteria, bacterial growth, bacterial classification, pathogenic bacteria and diseases, virulence, spectrum and symptoms of infection, treatment and control koch’s postulate, methods of isolation of bacterial pathogens.

SECOND SEMESTER
*GLT 323- VACUUM PHYSICS AND THIN FILM TECHNOLOGY (3 Credits)
Design and characteristics of vacuum systems; different types of vacuum pumps and their uses, measurement of low pressure, different types of pressure gauges, uses of valves and other vacuum materials. Industrial uses of vacuum ayatems, vacuum heating, furnaces, induction heating, electron bombardment heating.
Vacuum evaporation by various means, evaporation sources and techniques, substrate and surfaces preparation for thin film deposition in vacuum. Epitaial grow processes. Heat treatment for thin film, compatibility of film and substrates sputtering techniques, deposition of thin insulating films by r f. sputtering, preparation and uses of masks for thin film deposition. Characterization and application of thin films.

MBT 322-GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY II (3 Credits)
Systematic classification of bacteria; parasites, fungi, viruses, algae, etc. Isolation, characterization and identification of microbes. Biological and biochemical reaction of microorganisms. Applied areas of microbiology.

MBT 329 – ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY (3 Credits)
Microorganisms and organisms important in aquatic systems and disposal. Ecology of microorganisms in fresh water; pollution and self-purification of water; purification of water, brief studies of marine microbiology; Disease transmission by water; microbiological examination of

BIO 328 – MYCOLOGY (3 Credits)
Structure life-cycles physiology and classification of fungi. Fungi of Economic importance.

*GLT 348 – INSTRUMENT METHODS OF ANALYSIS (3 Credits)
Spectroscopic techniques. Quantitative analysis. X-ray methods. Florescence methods Nuclear magnetic resonance electrons spin resonance. Refractormetry and interferometry. Polarimetry, marography.

BIO 327 – MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (3 Credits)
Survey of the current status of microbial genetics[bateria,Viruses,protozoa and fungi] including discussion of methods and finding in the areas of mutagenesis, inductions, isolation and biochemical characterization of nutants adaptations, transformation, transduction, conversion and conjugation. General and specialized methods and techniques in microbial genetics. Experiments with virulent phages temperate phages and Iysogenic bacteria. Fungi and other lower eukaryotic genetics.

00 LEVEL
*GLT 411 LABORATORY ORGANIZATIONS AND MANAGEMENTI (2 Credits)
Planning and designs of laboratories. Ways of acquiring laboratory accommodation. Flexibility in laboratory design, special features of teaching, industrial, research and hospital laboratories. General space requirements:
laboratory layout: provision of services, floors windows, doors benches, cupboards drawers units, mechanical services- heating and ventilating fume, cupboards, lightening, electrical supplies, water suppliers, piped gases, safety in design; decoration, allocation of floor in multi-storey buildings.

Management of Stores
Stores policy, stores design and planning – storage of chemicals, hazardous materials, storage of apparatus, documentation.
Laboratory Administration
Technical information – filling systems, indexing systems, Dewey chemical classification, laboratory records – keeping, office facility and equipment, decision making – seeking advice, staff meetings advisory committee, meetings, formal committee meetings.
Maintenance of Laboratory Premises and Equipment
Planned maintenance – inspection of premises and equipment
Services Department and Special – Purposes Rooms
Glassware washing and sterilizing facilities, radioscope laboratories, photographic units, cold-rooms, animal houses, reprographic units, laboratory workshops, audio- visual aids – audio aids. Visual aids, glassblowing shops.
MBT 419 – INDUSTRAL MICROBIOLOGY (4 Credits)
Nature of industrial microbiology, microorganism of industrial importance; aspect of the biology of moulds, yeast, bacterial, actinomycetes and viruses of importance in various fermentation. Culture techniques and maintenance of selected cultures. Mutation, strain selection and development hybridization; media formulation and economic optimization of fermentation and economic; optimization of operation; Antifoams; aspects of biochemical engineering; patents and patent law.
MBT 416 – BIOCHEMISTRY OF PARASITES (3 Credits)
Survey of different types of parasites. Host-parasites relation. metabolism in selected parasites. Parasitism versus Symbiosis. Genetics of parasites. In –vitro cultivation of selected parasites.
MBT 410 – PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY (3 Credits)
Chemistry of synthetic chemotherapeutic agents antibodies’ production and synthesis of antibiotics and anti-microbial agents. Quality control of Pharmaceutics products. Concepts of growth and death in microorganisms’ mode of action and essay of anti-microbial agents; conceptual of antibiotic sensitivity and resistance as related to microbial physiology.
MBT 412 – ANALYTICAL MICROBIOLOGY AND QUALITY CONTROL (3 Credits)
Microorganisms as reagents in quantitative analysis, selection of test organisms for assay (antibiotics, amino acids, vitamins, etc) responses of microorganisms use in assays, obtaining and measuring response of microorganisms. Preparation of assay samples, methods of assay; interpretations of results, aspects of quality control, plant and equipment sanitation; microbiological standards and specifications.
MBT 411 – FOOD MICROBIOLOGY (3 Credits)
The occurrence and interactions of microorganism with food. Intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of foods that affects microbial growth. Methods of detecting the presence of microbes in foods. Milk, meat and water microbiology. Effects of microbial growth of food – fermentation, spoilage and food-borne disease; good sanitation and microbiological food quality control.
MBT 418 – ENZYMOLOGY (3 Credits)
Vitamins and co-enzymes. Fat and water soluble vitamins, structures and functions of vitamins co-enzymes. Classification and nomenclature of enzymes. Genetics of enzymes and inhibition. Mechanisms of enzymes catalyzed reactions. Effect of temperature, pH, ions and inhibitors on enzyme catalyzed reactions. Mechaelism-menten equation. Allosteric/regulatory enzymes. Active sites of enzymes. Estimation of kinetic parameters, enzymes activities Km, Vmax, Ki etc. zymogen activation, digestive enzymes etc. production, isolation, purification and characterization of enzymes. Recent advances in enzymology.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING [6 months – Second Semester]
The SIWES programme shall be undertaken in suitable laboratories in medical/public or industrial laboratories. A talk on experience during industrial attachment will be presented orally and in written form.

*GLT 420 – Industrial Training (Site work Supervision) (4 Credits)

*GLT 421 – Industrial Training (University Supervision) (4 Credits)

*GLT 422 – Industrial Training (Student Report) (4 Credits)

MICROBIOLOGY 500 LEVEL COURSE OUTLINE
MBT 514 – PETROLEUM MICROBIOLOGY (3 Credits)
Origin and chemical evolution of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere, biological oceanography. Morphology and biostratography of major groups of microfossil. Biological origin and accumulation of petroleum and sedimentary basis , Hydrobiology, petroleum pollution and its sources and biological control. Oil spillage. Petroleum degrading microorganisms, hydrocarbonoblactic bacteria. Metallo monass bacteria that cause rusting of oil pipes.

MBT 524 – PRINCIPLES OF EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PUBLIC HEALTH (3 Credits)
Nature of epidemiological investigation; spectrum of infection; herd immunity and latency of infections; multifactorial systems in epidemics; Zoonoses, Antigencis drifts; Biological products for recommended immunization schedules; international control of infectious disease, statistical application to epidemiology.

MBT 525 – APPLIED STORAGE TECHNIQUES (3 Credits)
This course shall involve a lot of practical’s and field practical stored products protection and preservation including spraying, dusting fumigation and smoking. Formulation and application of insecticides fungicides for controlling storage products, pests and disease. Prevention of storage losses and assessment of damage and crop losses practical survey, design and construction of storage facilities for tubers and root products, grains, fungi and vegetables. Students shall assist farmers, visit food mills, bakeries canning factories and other food processing plants as well as cooperative societies involved in controlling stored products pests. Quality control, facilities for transporting store food products.

MBT 519: APPLIED VECTORS AND PESTS MANAGEMENT (3 Credits)
This course shall particularly emphasize practical or field demonstrations and experiments on management of vectors and pests of economic importance in West Africa. Detailed study of the biology of vectors of animal diseases and their control e.g. Mosquitoes, testes-fly, black fly, house fly, sand fly, practical demonstration of their control in their productive habitats where possible. Invertebrate vectors of plants diseases and their control e.g. Aphids, scale insects. Vertebrate pests on farm crops e.g. birds, monkeys, rodents bat and their control. Mollusks as agricultural pests crop trees and their pests. Practical control of pest of farmland e.g., grasshoopers in waste land/abandoned farmland/college farm. Equipment used in vectors and pests control and their practical method used in various research/storage institutions and Agricultural development schemes for the control of pests.

MBT 515 – PLANT PATHOLOGY (3 Credits)
Principles and concepts in plant pathology; some pathology of plants, animal, and especially those prevalent in Nigeria. The geographical distribution of the pathogens; their isolation, identification, morphology, life-cycles, sources of isolation, transmission and the effects on the host, aetiology, cultural characteristics, and clinical manifestations of specific bacteria, viral and fungal pathogens of animals and plants, control of plant diseases.

MBT 528 – FERMENTATION OF DRINKS (3 Credits)
Basic concepts of fermentation, alcohol fermentation resulting in production of bread, beer wine and vinegar acid, fermentation leading to production of cheese, butter, yogurt etc; malolactic fermentation.

  • MBT 516 – SEMINAR (2 Credits)
    Students are to participate in Departmental Seminar throughout the session. The objective of this course is to give students some experience in preparing, reading, and presenting original research papers and to be familiar with current researches in microbiology. Topics to be presented shall be different from or closely related to the students’ project topics, as approved by the project supervisor.

*GLT 518 PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATIONS (3 Credits)
Concepts and fundamentals of photography cameras
The general principles, manipulation and care of different types of cameras in common use, their advantages and disadvantages.

Photomicrography: Projection and contact printing, choices and grades of paper, local control, finishing.
Colour photography principles of reversals and negative – positive process; type of materials, colour temperature, filters exposure.

Cine photograph
Cine photograph, use of 8mm cameral, video camera splicing and editing of commercially film.

Safety
Hazards in the use of photography reagents. Darkroom management.
*GLT 527 LABORATORY ORGANIZATION & MANAGEMENT II (3 Credits)
Management Techniques and Function
The concept and relevance of management to laboratory practice. Meaning of organization. Supervisory skills and management functions: planning; organizing; forecasting; motivating: coordination; controlling and communication etc. purchasing of laboratory materials; SOURCES OF FUNDS and different methods of purchasing. Preparation of purchasing orders. Receipt and storage of ordered materials. Issuing of material. Stock control management. Record keeping in the laboratory. Design and execution of scientific experiments. Scientific measurements and data collections. Literature search and retrieval. Factors affecting accuracy of experimental measurements. Preparation and presentation of experimental data – thesis/dissertation. Ways of presenting seminars. Selection and management of staff Job description; the advertisement, application forms – references; interviewing and selection – final selection; contracts and conditions of service; induction; training and further education – motivation in technical education, recent DEVELOPMENTS in technical training and education, laboratory discipline: termination of employment. Organization of Laboratory Practice Elements of law . Common and statutory laws and relevance to laboratory practice such as health and safety , welfare of employees, and cruelty to animals. Import and exercise duties. Nature of contract. Contract in relation to purchasing etc. legislating regulation the science laboratory practice in Nigeria (NISLT) Act No. 12 of 2003). Structure of NISLT and functions. Legal and professional responsibilities of technologists. Organization of laboratory services in Nigeria – public and private laboratories. Professional code of ethics.
Types of business organization. Small business development. Industrial relations

Health and Safety
The basic approach – The health and safety at work etc. Act of 1974; organization of laboratory safety – line management, safety officers, safety committees, codes of practice, general attitude to laboratory safety, accident books and records, notable accidents the hazard – fire escapes, fire prevention, fire- fighting

equipment, fire drills, fire escapes, fire radiation and the use of radioactive substances; cylinders of compressed gas; centrifuges; cryogenic substances; physical injuries; chemical; occupational hygiene; dermatitis and skin reactions; toxic substances and threshold limit values; carcinogens; bacterial, viruses and other biohazards.

MBT 517 – PROCESS BIOCHEMISTRY (3 Credits)
Basic concepts of anaerobic metabolism, isolation, cultivation and identification of anaerobes – Thermophilic anaerobes and their unique features. Survey of useful products manufactured by microorganisms, culture of yeasts, mould bacteria actinomycetes mammalian cells, genetic programming of industrial microorganisms. Microbial productions of beer, wine, bread and cheese. Microbiological production of pharmaceutics (hormones and interferon) and industrial chemicals. Methanogensis (mechanism and application for waste treatment) production methods in industrial microbiology, agricultural microbiology, and stain improvement strategies for industrial organism.

MBT 523 – FOOD PROCESSING, STORAGE AND PRESERVATION (3 Credits)
Principles practice of food processing. Techniques of processing and preservation of Nigeria foods with regards to their physical – chemical properties. Canning containers, outline of canning operation, principal spoilage organisms in canned foods. Use of radiations in food preservation. Insect contaminations as spoilage organisms. Laboratory Examination of canned foods. Methods of detecting contaminants in foods.

  • MBT 521 RESEARCH PROJECT (4 Credits)
    A research project involving an investigation on selected biological problems; the students will undertake research project in a current area of microbiology under direction of a member of staff. The project is to be written in the form of a scientific report.

PHYSIOLOGY/ PHARMACOLOGY COURSE OUTLINE
300 LEVEL
*GLT 305- RADIOCHEMISTRY AND NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY (3 Credits)
Natural radio-actions, fusion, fission decay processes, nature of radiation. Nuclear models, energetic of nuclear reaction. Principles and measurement of radioactivity. Applications of radioactivity

PPT 308 – PARASYMPATHETIC /SYMPATHETIC (3 Credits)
Pharmacology of drug affecting cholinergic nerve transmission. Sites of action – cholingeric receptors and classification. Cholinesterase and anti-cholinesteraceses. Pharmacology of drugs affecting adrenergic nerve transmission, storage uptake and release of catecholamine, structure – activity relationships in sympathominetic amines.

*GLT 315 – HAZARDS AND SAFETY IN THE LABORATORY/ LABORATORY MAINTENANCE AND FITTINGS (3 Credits)
Accidents and control measures. First Aid Treatment. First Aid Box. Maintenance of Laboratory Equipment. Laboratory Fittings.

*GLT 323- VACUUM PHYSICS AND THIN FILM TECHNOLOGY (3 Credits)
Design and characteristics of vacuum systems; different types of vacuum pumps and their uses, measurement of low pressure, different types of pressure gauges, uses of valves and other vacuum materials. Industrial uses of vacuum sytems, vacuum heating, furnaces, induction heating, electron bombardment heating.
Vacuum evaporation by various means, evaporation sources and techniques, substrate and surfaces preparation for thin film deposition in vacuum. Epitaial grow processes. Heat treatment for thin film, compatibility of film and substrates sputtering techniques, deposition of thin insulating films by r f. sputtering, preparation and uses of masks for thin film deposition. Characterization and application of thin films.

PPT 310 – BLOOD AND BODY FLUIDS (2 Credits)
Blood and Body Fluids, Composition of blood and lymph. Chemistry of Blood plasma. Plasma and Serum proteins. Red blood cell functions, white blood cell functions. Defence mechanisms, antibody – antigen interactions. Mechanisms of blood coagulation. Blood disorders (anemia’s and leukemia’s and treatment).

PPT 311 – CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM (2 Credits)
Anatomy and physiology of the heart. The electrocardiogram. Principles of blood circulation (systemic, pulmonary and coronary). Cardiac output, arterial venous and capillary pressures. Control of blood pressure. Auto nervous and normal regulations. Cardiac failure and hypertension.

PPT 315 – RENAL SYSTEM (2 Credits)
Anatomy and functions of the kidney, formation of urine, mictrition. Regulation of extra cellular fluids – diuretics. Regulation of Acid-base balance. Therapeutic alterations of urinary pH. Renal disease and treatment. Control of body pH. Some selected practicals on the above histology.

PPT 312- RESPIRATORY SYSTEM (2 Credits)
Physiology of the respiratory system. Pulmonary ventilation. Mechanisms of breathing. Volumes, Pressure and composition of respiratory gases. Mechanism of and factors affecting gaseous exchange. Diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide through the respiratory membrane. Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood and body fluids. Nervous and chemical control of respiratory. Respiratory insufficiency. Extraneous influences affecting respiration. Drug affecting respiration and respiratory disorders.

PPT 313 – ALIMENTARY SYSTEM (2 Credits)
Physiology of the alimentary tract. Movement of food through the alimentary canal. Secretory functions of the alimentary tract. Digestive juices. The liver and bilary system. Absorption and storage of metabolites. Carbohydratesl protein and fat metabolism. Water absorption in the large intestine. Defecation and cathartics. Diseases of the alimentary system (ulcer, diarrhea, constipation and drug treatment).

PPT 314 – GENERAL PRACTICAL (PHYSIOLOGY) (2 Credits)
Practical involving the anatomical and functional organizations of autonomic (parasympathetic and sympathetic) and central nervous systems and reproductive introductory practical knowledge on effects of drugs on selected tissues.

PPT 316 – AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (3 Credits)
Anatomical and functional ANS. Sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. Sympathetic transmission – synthesis, storage, release and distribution of noradrenalin. Evidence for noradrenalin as a neurotransmitten parasympathetic – synthesis storage, release and distribution Parasympathetic – synthesis storage, release and distribution of acetylcholine. Neuromuscular transmission. Practicals.

PPT 317 – CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM – ANATOMY OF THE CNS (3 Credits)
Spinal cord and pathways. Control of muscle movement, cortical and cerebella control of motor functions, Basal ganglia and control of movement, Transmission and processing of information. The reticular activating system, Wakefulness, sleep and attention – EEG waves, The limbic system and emotions. Reproductive System – Anatomy and Physiology of sex organs. Some selected practicals on the above.

PPT 323- AUTONOMIC PHARMACOLOGY (2 Credits)
Pharmacology of drug affecting cholinergic nerve transmission. Sites of action cholinergic receptors and classification. Cholinesterase and anti-cholinesteraceses. Pharmacology of drugs affecting adrenergic nerve transmission, storage uptake and release of catecholamine, structure-activity relationships in sympathomimetic amines. Neuromuscular blockers. Structure-activity relationship. Ganglion stimulation of blockade.

PPT 322 CARDIOVASCULAR PHARMACOLOGY (2 Credits)
Types of antihypertensive drugs and mechanisms of action. Diuretics Vasodilators and antianginal drugs. Calcium channels blockers.
Autocoids – histamines, 5-hydroxytrypahmine prostaglandins and their antagonists.Eicosanoids, Vasoactive peptides, Nitric Oxide, Drugs used in asthma.

PPT 324 – PRACTICAL PHARMACOLOGY (3 Credits)

PPT 325-AUTOCRINE/ENDOCRINE PHARMACOLOGY (2 Credits)
Endocrinology-organizational function of the endocrine system. Gene and membrane active hormones. The hypophyseal hormones and pineal gland. ACTH, Insulin, Glucagon, Parathyroid hormone, local hormones. Thyroid and Antithyroid drugs, Adrenocorticosteriods and adrenocortical antagonists, gonadal hormones and inhibitors, pancreatic hormones and antidiabetic drugs.

*GLT 348 – INSTRUMENT METHODS OF ANALYSIS (3 Credits)
Spectroscopic techniques. Quantitative analysis. X-ray methods. Florescence methods Nuclear magnetic resonance electrons spin resonance. Refractormetry and interferometry. Polarimetry, marography.

400 LEVEL COURSE OUTLINE( First Semester )
*GLT 411 LABORATORY ORGANIZATIONAND MANAGEMENT I (2 Credits)
Planning and designs of laboratories. Ways of acquiring laboratory accommodation. Flexibility in laboratory design, special features of teaching, industrial, research and hospital laboratories. General space requirements:
laboratory layout: provision of services, floors windows, doors benches, cupboards drawers units, mechanical services- heating and ventilating fume, cupboards, lightening, electrical supplies, water suppliers, piped gases, safety in design; decoration, allocation of floor in multi-storey buildings.

Management of Stores
Stores policy, stores design and planning – storage of chemicals, hazardous materials, storage of apparatus, documentation.
Laboratory Administration
Technical information – filling systems, indexing systems, Dewey chemical classification, laboratory records – keeping, office facility and equipment, decision making – seeking advice, staff meetings advisory committee, meetings, formal committee meetings.
Maintenance of Laboratory Premises and Equipment
Planned maintenance – inspection of premises and equipment
Services Department and Special – Purposes Rooms
Glassware washing and sterilizing facilities, radioscope laboratories, photographic units, cold-rooms, animal houses, reprographic units, laboratory workshops, audio- visual aids – audio aids. Visual aids, glassblowing shops.

SPP 416 – PRACTICAL PHARMACOLOGY (3 Credits)
Relevant topics by the unit to be designed and performed by the students.
PPT 414 – ANIMAL MANAGEMENT (3 Credits)
i) Design of Animal house for various colonies of laboratory animals
ii) Breeding and handling methods
iii) Diseases and control of infection – ,
iv) Collection of blood and humane killing methods e.g. physical and chemical means.
v) Routes of drug administration
vi) Laws governing the use of laboratory animals.

PPT 415 – SYSTEMIC PHARMACOLOGY (2 Credits)
GIT pharmacology, ocular pharmacology, respiratory pharmacology and respiratory pharmacology.

PPT 417 – CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM PHARMACOLOGY (3 Credits)
Introduction to the pharmacology of CNS Drugs, Sedative-Hypnotic Drugs, The Alcohols, Anti-epileptic drugs, General Anesthetics, Local Anesthetics, Skeletal Muscle Relaxants, Parkinson disease management and other movement disorders, Antipsychotic Agents and Lithium, Antidepressant Agents, Opioid Analgesics and Antagonists, Drugs of Abuse.

PPT 413 – INSTRUMENTATION (3 Credits)
Introduction to the apparatus and instruments used for experimental physiology i.e. surgical instruments, recording apparatus, stimulators, levers baths, transducers, physiograph, cathode Ray oscillograph, Oscilloscope and electrodes.
Recording methods: isotonic and isometric muscle contractions. Mechanical and electrical recordings: Measurement of temperature, force displacement and pressure. Contraction of muscle, characteristics of muscle twitch and contraction of skeletal muscles in the body. Record membrane potentials and action potentials e.g. Manophasic and Diphasic.

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING [6 months – Second Semester]
The SIWES programe shall be undertaken in suitable laboratories in medical/public or industrial laboratories. A talk on experience during industrial attachment will be presented orally and in written form.

*GLT 420 – Industrial Training (Site work Supervision) (4 Credits)
*GLT 421 – Industrial Training (University Supervision) (4 Credits)
*GLT 422 – Industrial Training (Student Report) (4 Credits)

500 LEVEL COURSE OUTLINE
PPT 512 – PHYSIOLOGY/PHARMACOLOGY TECHNIQUES (3 Credits)
Relevant topics by the unit to be designed and performed by the students.

PPT 534 – CONVERSANT AGENTS (3 Credits)
Strychnine, bicuculine picrotoxin, tetanus toxin. Psychotominetix drugs. Physco and neuropharmacology practicals on the aetiology of cancer, bacterial infections, and common tropical diseases, and the various pathophysiological states associated with these diseases. The mechanisms of actions of the various chemotherapeutic drugs and their toxic agents. The chemistry and the structural activity relationship of these therapeutic agents. The mechanisms of drug resistance, role of immunity in chemotherapy, and the rationale for combination therapy.

PPT 529 – PRINCIPLES OF CHEMOTHERAPY (6 Credits)
Beta-Lactam and other Cell wall- & Membrane-Active antibiotics, Tetracyclines, Macrolides, Chloramphenicol & Strptogramins, Aminoglycosides, Sulphanamides, Trimethoprim, & Quinolones, Antimycobacterial Drugs, Antifungal Agents, Antimalarial agents, disinfectants, antiseptics and Sterilants, antiparasitic agents, antiprotozoal drugs, Anthelmintic drugs, cancer chemotherapy and Immunopharmacology.

PPT 510 – PRACTICAL PHYSIOLOGY (3 Credits)
General principles of toxicology. Toxicity testing. Organotoxicity – oculartoxicity, nepphrotoxicity and hepatotoxity. Adverse drug interactions and genetic compounds in clinical practice. Agricultural, environmental and industrial toxicology. Principles of antidotal treatment, carcinogenesis and terto-genesis. Toxicology evaluation of a new drug. Post marketing surveillance of drugs.

  • PPT 516 – SEMINAR (2 Credits)
    Students are to participate in Departmental Seminar throughout the session. The objective of this course is to give students some experience in preparing, reading, and presenting original research papers and to be familiar with current researches in Physiology/Pharmacology. Topics to be presented shall be different from or closely related to the students’ project topics, as approved by the project supervisor.

*GLT 518 PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATIONS (3 Credits)
Concepts and fundamentals of photography cameras
The general principles, manipulation and care of different types of cameras in common use, their advantages and disadvantages.

Photomicrography: Projection and contact printing, choices and grades of paper, local control, finishing.
Colour photography principles of reversals and negative – positive process; type of materials, colour temperature, filters exposure.

Cine photograph
Cine photograph, use of 8mm cameral, video camera splicing and editing of commercially film.

Safety
Hazards in the use of photography reagents. Darkroom management.

*GLT 527 LABORATORY ORGANIZATION & MANAGEMENT II (3 Credits)
Management Techniques and Function
The concept and relevance of management to laboratory practice. Meaning of organization. Supervisory skills and management functions: planning; organizing; forecasting; motivating: coordination; controlling and communication etc. purchasing of laboratory materials; SOURCES OF FUNDS and different methods of purchasing. Preparation of purchasing orders. Receipt and storage of ordered materials. Issuing of material. Stock control management. Record keeping in the laboratory. Design and execution of scientific experiments. Scientific measurements and data collections. Literature search and retrieval. Factors affecting accuracy of experimental measurements. Preparation and presentation of experimental data – thesis/dissertation. Ways of presenting seminars. Selection and management of staff
Job description; the advertisement, application forms – references; interviewing and selection – final selection; contracts and conditions of service; induction; training and further education – motivation in technical education, recent DEVELOPMENTS in technical training and education, laboratory discipline: termination of employment. Organization of Laboratory Practice Elements of law . Common and statutory laws and relevance to laboratory practice such as health and safety , welfare of employees, and cruelty to animals. Import and exercise duties. Nature of contract. Contract in relation to purchasing etc. legislating regulation the science laboratory practice in Nigeria (NISLT) Act No. 12 of 2003). Structure of NISLT and functions. Legal and professional responsibilities of technologists. Organization of laboratory services in Nigeria – public and private laboratories. Professional code of ethics.
Types of business organization. Small business development. Industrial relations

Health and Safety
The basic approach – The health and safety at work etc. Act of 1974; organization of laboratory safety – line management, safety officers, safety committees, codes of practice, general attitude to laboratory safety, accident books and records, notable accidents the hazard – fire escapes, fire prevention, fire- fighting

equipment, fire drills, fire escapes, fire radiation and the use of radioactive substances; cylinders of compressed gas; centrifuges; cryogenic substances; physical injuries; chemical; occupational hygiene; dermatitis and skin reactions; toxic substances and threshold limit values; carcinogens; bacterial, viruses and other biohazards.

PPT 523 – DRUG QUALITY CONTROL AND ASSURANCE (3 Credits)
1) General principles of drug quality control and assurance systems
2) Structural organization and functions of a quality control Department
3) Source of impurities in pharmaceuticals substances, sources of quality variation of pharmaceutical products.
4) Monographs and specifications for drugs and drug products. Critical evaluation of the Pharmacopoeias including the African Pharmacopoeia and the role of WHO in drug quality assurance.
5) Application of chemical and physiochemical analytical techniques in purity determination, identification and quantization, of drugs in pharmaceutical and radiopharmaceutical preparations, including multicomponent formulations from regulatory and quality control standpoint.
6) Evaluation of crude drugs
7) Microbiological evaluation of sterile and non-sterile pharmaceutical products.

PPT 522 – DRUG QUALITY CONTROL /ASSURANCE PRACTICAL: (3 Credits)
Practical work will involve comprehensive analysis of some selected raw materials and finished drug products using a combination of analysis of principles treated in the theory. It will be supplemented by visits to local manufacturing units where the students may examine the practice of quality control.

  • PPT 521: RESEARCH PROJECT (4 Credits)
    A research project involving an investigation on selected biological problems; the students will undertake research project in a current area of Physiology/Pharmacology under direction of a member of staff. The project is to be written in the form of a scientific report
    CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES COURSE OUTLINE
    300 LEVEL COURSE
    *GLT 305 – RADIOCHEMISTRY AND NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY (3 Credits)
    Natural radio-actions, fusion, fission, decay process, nature of radiation, Nuclear models, energetics of nuclear reaction. Principles and measurement of radioactivity. Applications of radioactivity.

*GLT 315 – HAZARDS AND SAFETY IN THE LABORATORY/ LABORATORY MAINTENANCE AND FITTINGS (3 Credits)
Accidents and control measures. First Aid Treatment. First Aid Box. Maintenance of Laboratory Equipment. Laboratory Fittings.

*GLT 323- VACUUM PHYSICS AND THIN FILM TECHNOLOGY (3 Credits)
Design and characteristics of vacuum systems; different types of vacuum pumps and their uses, measurement of low pressure, different types of pressure gauges, uses of valves and other vacuum materials. Industrial uses of vacuum ayatems, vacuum heating, furnaces, induction heating, electron bombardment heating.
Vacuum evaporation by various means, evaporation sources and techniques, substrate and surfaces preparation for thin film deposition in vacuum. Epitaial grow processes. Heat treatment for thin film, compatibility of film and substrates sputtering techniques, deposition of thin insulating films by r f. sputtering, preparation and uses of masks for thin film deposition. Characterization and application of thin films.

*GLT 348 – INSTRUMENT METHODS OF ANALYSIS (3 Credits)
Spectroscopic techniques. Quantitative analysis. X-ray methods. Florescence methods Nuclear magnetic resonance electrons spin resonance. Refractormetry and interferometry. Polarimetry, marography.

CHT 310 – INORGANIC CHEMISTRY II (2 Credits)
The noble gases, hydrogen. Electronic structure and general properties and comparative study of group 11A elements. Chemistry of Boron; Carbon and Silicon; Nitrogen and Phosphorus; Oxygen and Sulphur. T he halogens. Transition elements. Separation of metals. Co-ordination Chemistry. Ligand and Crystal field theories. Introduction to Radiochemistry. Radioactivity and the periodic table.

CHT 311 – ORGANIC CHEMISTRY II (2 Credits)
Alcohol and their reactions. Ethers and Epoxides. Carboxylic acids and their derivatives.
Aldehydes and ketones
Carbanion I and b – unsaturated compounds
Carbanion II. Amines; Aromatc and Alicyclic chemistry.
Polyfunctional compounds. Heterocycle chemistry.

CHT 312 – PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY II (2 Credits)
A review of Gibbs function. Chemical thermodynamics. Introduction to statistical thermodynamics. Ideals solutions. Non-ideal solutions. Properties of electrolytes.

CHT 314 – NATURAL PRODUCTS CHEMISTRY (3 Credits)
Terpenoids, carotenoids, steroids, alkaloids and Lipids.

GLT 318 – POLYMER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (2 Credits)
The nature of Polymer, types of polymers and Polymerization processes; Addition, condensation Polymerizations and their mechanisms. Physical properties of Polymers. Solubility and solution properties. Structure and properties of fibre forming polymers.

CHT 315 – INDUSTRIAL RAW MATERIALS RESOURCES INVENTORY (3 Credits)
Survey of Nigeria’s industries and their raw material requirements. Mineral chemistry. Fossils and their uses. Plant and animal products. Nuclear, solar and hydrodynamic sources of energy. Protentials and applications of locally available raw materials as industrials feedstock.

CHT 320 – ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY (2 Credits)
Concepts of elementary cycles. Characteristics of the atmosphere. Sources, types and effects of environmental pollution. Wastes water treatment. Composition of domestic water. Water chemistry and analysis. Chemical and physical instrumentation environmental sciences.

CHT 321 – PETROCHEMISTRY (2 Credits)
Petroleum in the contemporary energy scene. Nature, classification and composition of crude petroleum and natural gases. Distribution of petroleum and natural gas resources (the global and Nigerian situations). Petrochemicals in industrial raw materials. Prospects for the petrochemical industry in Nigeria.

CHT 322 – COLOUR CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY I (2 Credits)
Colour and constitution. Chemistry, properties of dyes and pigments. Classification of dynes and fibres. Dyeing mechanisms. Preparation and dyeing of natural and synthetic fibres. Colour fastness properties. Quality control procedures and coloration industry.

CHT 323 –APPLIED SPECTROSCOPY (2 Credits)
Principles and application of UV, IR, NMR and mass spectroscopy the determination and elucidation of structures of organic compounds.

CHT 324 – FOOD CHEMISTRY (3 Credits)
Occurrence, structure and functions of carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oil, physical and chemical properties. Starch behaviour during baking and stalling of bread. Glucose syrup-chemistry of enzymatic and non enzymatic productions. Ripening and maturing of fruits – Pectic substances and their uses. The chemistry of fermentation process in the food industry. Effect of enzymes in foods. Enzymatic and non enzymatic browning.

CHT 325 – ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMISTRY (3 Credits)
Classification of Organometalic compounds. Preparation structure and reactions including abnormal behaviour of organometallics. Generation and detection of free-radicals; free organometallic compounds.

400 LEVEL COURSES ( First semester )

*GLT 411 LABORATORY ORGANIZATIONS AND MANAGEMENT I (3 Credits)
Planning and designs of laboratories. Ways of acquiring laboratory accommodation. Flexibility in laboratory design, special features of teaching, industrial, research and hospital laboratories. General space requirements:
laboratory layout: provision of services, floors windows, doors benches, cupboards drawers units, mechanical services- heating and ventilating fume, cupboards, lightening, electrical supplies, water suppliers, piped gases, safety in design; decoration, allocation of floor in multi-storey buildings.
Management of Stores
Stores policy, stores design and planning – storage of chemicals, hazardous materials, storage of apparatus, documentation.

Laboratory Administration
Technical information – filling systems, indexing systems, Dewey chemical classification, laboratory records – keeping, office facility and equipment, decision making – seeking advice, staff meetings advisory committee, meetings, formal committee meetings.

Maintenance of Laboratory Premises and Equipment
Planned maintenance – inspection of premises and equipment

Services Department and Special – Purposes Rooms
Glassware washing and sterilizing facilities, radioscope laboratories, photographic units, cold-rooms, animal houses, reprographic units, laboratory workshops, audio- visual aids – audio aids. Visual aids, glassblowing shops.

CHT 412 – REACTION KINETICS (2 Credits)
Review of first, second and third order rate equation, rate constants and equilibrium constant. Collision theory, transition state theory, reaction coordinates. Unimolecular reaction theory, bimolecular reaction mechanisms, chain reaction mechanism, catalysis and heterogeneous reaction. Photochemical reaction mechanisms.

CHT 415 – HETEROCYLIC CHEMISTRY (2 Credits)
The synthetic and mechanistic aspects of fused heterocyclic system particularly Quiolines, Isoqinolines, Bezofurans, Benzothiophenes, indoles, Bezopyrylium salts, Coumarin Chromonnes. Application of heterocyclic systems in drug synthesis.

CHT 416 – CO-ORDINATION CHEMISTRY (2 Credits)
Definition, recognition and Applications Co-ordination, Nomenclature, Co-ordination formular and Isomerism in complexes stereochemistry of complex molecules. Theories of structure and bonding. Physical methods of structural investigation. Magnetic properties. Absorption and vibrational spectra. The spectrochemical series. The Nephelauxetic series and the John – Teller distortions. Stabilization of unusual oxidation states by complex formation. Thermodynamic stability of complex compounds, the stability constant, the chelote effect. Preparation and reactions of complexes. Kinetics and Mechanisms.

CHT 417 – NATURAL PRODUCTS CHEMISTRY II (2 Credits)
Chemistry of terpenoids, steroids, and alkaloids, antibiotics, lavanoids. Prestegladins and chlorophylis. Other natural products of pharmaceutical importance. General methods of isolation, separation, purification and structural determination of the natural products. Classifications. Discussion of chemistry of important members, Biogeneses.

GLT 418 – CHEMISTRY LABORATORY TECHNIQUES AND PRACTICE I (3 Credits)

  1. Chemical Recovery of Substances
    Solvents – (miscible and immiscible, acid contaminated) precipitates cleaning of Mercury – by filtration and by distillation.
  2. Criteria of Purity of Organic Compounds
    (i) Explanation of the terms – melting and boiling points (ii) Construction of melting and boiling point apparatus (iii) Typical determination.
  3. Soxhlet Extractor – Used for the continuous extraction of solid in a hot solvent.
  4. Gravimetric Techniques – Simple treatment only,
    (i) The principles of Gravimetric analysis
    (ii) Steps in Gravimetric analysis
    (a) Preparation of the solution
    (b) Precipitate
    (c) Digestion
    (d) Filtration

CHT 411 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND SYMMETRY
Schrodinger equation. Helim atom, ground and excited stated, sin and pauli’s principle. Hydrogen Molecule Comparison of molecular orbital and valence theory concept of resonance and configuration interaction. Coulson-Fisher funnel. Molecular orbitals for diatomic molecules, simple pielectron theory. Huckel theory, Huckel theory. Welsh rules brief mention of other methods. Atomic Russel Saunders Coupling. Mention of other methods. Atomic Russel Saunders Coupling, Orbital spin angular momentum. Use of symmetry in Chemistry.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING [6 months – Second Semester]
The SIWES programe shall be undertaken in suitable laboratories in medical/public or industrial laboratories. A talk on experience during industrial attachment will be presented orally and in written form.

*GLT 420 – Industrial Training (Site work Supervision) (4 Credits)

*GLT 421 – Industrial Training (University Supervision) (4 Credits)

*GLT 422 – Industrial Training (Student Report) (4 Credits)

500 LEVEL COURSES

  • CHT 521 – PROJECT (4 Credits)
    CHM 521 is a three – unit project carried out over semesters constituting the final year of the undergraduate program. It is aimed at exposing the graduating students into the techniques of designing and executing a research topic of relevance to the current national needs and those of the various industries that utilize the research findings of chemical and allied institutes. These projects are carried out under the supervision of members of the academics staffs of the departments.
  • CHT 516 – SEMINAR (2 Credits)
    This is a 2-unit courses of critical review of current topics of chemical interest. Students are required to write a treatise on selected topics and to present class seminar on them

CHT 513 – INDUSTRIAL CHEMICAL PROCESSES II (3 Credits)
Chemical processing of minerals, metallurgy and hydrometallurgical processes. Industrial electrochemistry. Manufactured of some heavy inorganic chemicals. Cement and binding materials. Inorganic fertilizers.

CHT 520 – INDUSTRIAL CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY II (3 Credits)
Hydrogen and carbon monoxide synthesis, gas, exoprocess, water gas, source of hydrogen and its application. Industrial organic materials, Raw materials. Technical and economic principles of processes and product routes. Flow diagrams. Selected oils and fats, soaps ad detergents, sugar, varnishes, plastics, wood-pulp and paper. Environmental pollution

CHT 524: FOOD ANALYSIS (2 Credits)
Sampling and treatment for analysis – proximate analysis of Analysis of –
Sugar and fruit products, Milk and diary products, Flesh food, Fermented products (beer, wine, vinegar), Flour and confectionary
Oil valerancidity

CHT 525 – ELECTROCHEMISTRY (2 Credits)
Electrical double layer, potential at zero charge, polarizable and non-polarizable interface, mass transport, concentration polarization, Pick’s Law’s levic equation. Electronics Polagraphy.

CHT 519 – WATER AND WASTE TREATMENT (2 Credits)
Background, simple water analysis, flow, dispension, degradation, amounts and composition of wastes, biological aspects, parties, transport in soil and ground water sinks for water treatment, conventional processes in handling sewage, water treatment, plant, waste, advanced waste treatment. Effects of water pollution.

CHT 522: QUALITY CONTROL AND INDUSTRIAL SAFETY (3 Credits)
Quality control as applied to selected product, preservation and control of industrial and laboratory hazards.

CHT 529 – ANALYSIS OF SELECTED MATERIALS INCLUDING DRUGS (3 Credits)
Various techniques in use for the analysis of crude materials. Analysis of environmental samples. E.g pesticide residue, hydrocarbons and air. Analysis for heavy metal contaminants. Organic functional groups and drug analysis. Sol geochemical analysis.

CHT 512 – APPLIED SURFACE AND COLLOID CHEMISTRY (3 Credits)
Some general principle relating to surfaces. Electrical potentials, attractive forces, solids gas interface and solid liquid interface. Definition of colloid and history of colloid development. Types of colloids. Polymers. Proteins., gels, Association colloids, Detergency.

CHT 510 – DYE AND TEXTILE CHEMISTRY TECHNOLOGY (2 Credits)
Principles of yam manufacture both natural and man-made. Basic machine processes involved. Textile processing, bleaching, dyeing theory and printing. Surface activity. Colour fastness and factors affecting it. Colour mattering matters. Management problems in textile industries.

CHT 517 – WOOD, PULP AND PAPER CHEMISTRY I (2 Credits)
Forest – conservation, exploitation and afforestation. Species, anatomy, physical properties and classification of wood. Preparation of wood from pulping. Physical and chemical methods of pulping. Bleaching reagents and pulp bleaching. Pulp-properties and uses.

CHT 527 – POLYMER TECHNOLOGY (2 Credits)
Large scale industrial polymerization processes. Polymer Tech. polymer processing, injection, extrustion, compression and transfer moulding of termoplatics. Polymer additives. Polymer surface coating and adhensive.

CHT 526 – CHEMISTRY LABORATORY TECHNIQUES AND PRACTICE II (3 Credits)
Definition, types and uses.
Preparation of butter solution (acidic and alkaline) of known pH and known molar concentration.

ii) Colorimetric and photoelectric colorimetric
a) Introduction to the nature of radiant energy
b) The electromagnetic spectrum
c) The law of absorbance
d) The bouguert – Lambert law
e) The beer’s law

Combination of Lambart and Beer’s Law. Deviation from Beer’s Lambert law.
a) Visual colorimetry Techniques (use of comparators)

1) The duplication (litration) methods)
2) The dilution method
3) The method of balance or variable depth
4) The standard series method.
b) Photoelectric filter photometer
1) The construction of a single beam filter photometer e.g. EEL Colorimeter should be described include the principles of operation
2) Operational precautions and limitations
3) Trouble shooting and how to correct them
Examples of the faults often associated with filter photometers are: No meter
Deflection.

Instrument cannot set zero with blank sample. Instrument sometimes gives accurate readings.
4) Maintenance of the instrument
c) Spectrophotometry
1) Principles of photoelectric spectrophotometer
2) Treatment of different types of cells and their applications.
3) Types of spectrophotometer – U.V., IR and visible (examples should include the single beam and double beam spectrophot-meters)
g) Refractometry
Theory. Speciflic and molar refraction. Working principles of a refractometer – e.g. Abbe refractometer.
Applications fo refractometric method of analysis
Care of the instrument
h) Plarimetry
theory equipment. Practice
i) Purification of organic compounds
The principal methods used to purify organic compounds.
a) Crystallization – (application limited to solids) explanation the process in its simplest form.
iii) Choice of solvent,
iii) Experimental details for recrystallization.

Use of de-colouring carbon for the removal of traces of matter and Resinous products.
b) Distillation (Application limited to liquids and low melting volatiles solids)
i) Brief theory of distillation, superheating,
ii) Method of distillation
a) Distillation of almospheric pressure, typical assemblies and techniques used
b) Steam distillation – types assemblies and techniques used.
c) Distillation under diminished pressure (Vacuum distillation) typical assemblies and techniques used
d) Fractional Distillation – Fractionating columns Azeotropes, Types, Assemblies and Techniques. Fractional distillation under Diminished pressure.
e) Cromatographic methods, principles.
Classification of Chromatographic Techniques adsorption, partition. Techniques of column chromatrography
Paper chromatography, thin-layer chromatograph, Lon exchange chromatography, gas chromatography

BIOCHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES COURSES
300 LEVEL COURSES
*GLT 305- RADIOCHEMISTRY AND NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY (3 Credits)
Natural radio-actions, fusion, fission decay processes, nature of radiation. Nuclear models, energetic of nuclear reaction. Principles and measurement of radioactivity. Applications of radioactivity

*GLT 315 – HAZARDS AND SAFETY IN THE LABORATORY/ LABORATORY MAINTENANCE AND FITTINGS(3 Credits)
Accidents and control measures. First Aid Treatment. First Aid Box. Maintenance of Laboratory Equipment. Laboratory Fittings.

*GLT 323- VACUUM PHYSICS AND THIN FILM TECHNOLOGY (3 Credits)
Design and characteristics of vacuum systems; different types of vacuum pumps and their uses, measurement of low pressure, different types of pressure gauges, uses of valves and other vacuum materials. Industrial uses of vacuum systems, vacuum heating, furnaces, induction heating, electron bombardment heating.
Vacuum evaporation by various means, evaporation sources and techniques, substrate and surfaces preparation for thin film deposition in vacuum. Epitaial grow processes. Heat treatment for thin film, compatibility of film and substrates sputtering techniques, deposition of thin insulating films by r f. sputtering, preparation and uses of masks for thin film deposition. Characterization and application of thin films.

*GLT 348 – INSTRUMENTAL METHOD OF ANALYSIS (2 Credits)
Spectroscopic techniques. Quantitative analysis X-ray methods. Fluorescence methods Nuclear megantic resonance electron spin resonance. Refractormetry and interferometry. Polarimetry, marography, Calorimetry.

BCT 356 – FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY (2 Credits)
An introduction to the theory and application of physical and chemical methods of determining the constituents of food. Food processing preservation and storage of traditional foods roots and stem tubers, fruits and fruit drinks, seeds and grains, green vegetables. Food poisoning and intoxication. Prevention and cure.

BCT 317 – MEMBRANE BIOCHEMISTRY (2 Credits)
Structure, composition and functions of biological membranes. Isolation, characterized and classification of membranes; chemistry and biosynthesis of membranes. Molecular organization of membrane components. Natural and artificial membrane bilayers – the unit membrane hypothesis. Membrane transport system active versus passive transport systems. Transport of sugars and amino acids, lonophores.

BCT 318 – NUTRITIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY (2 Credits)
Food nutrients; energy values of foods and energy expenditure by mammalians.
Nutritive values of foods carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, mineral elements and water.
Nutritional disorders, prevention and therapy. Nutritional status and nutrient status. Nutrient requirements, in relation to physical activity and ageing, diet and disease obesity and under nutrition.

BCT 313 – METABOLISM OF CARBOHYDRATES (2 Credits)
Degradation and digestion of carbohydrates –sugars, storage polysaccharides and cell walls. Reactions of sugars. Glycolysis, the Tricarboxylic acid cycle the phosphogluconate pathway and the cori cycle the calvin pathway. Gluconcegeneis and glyconegenesis. Disorder of carbohydrates metabolism.

BCT 312 – PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY II (2 Credits)
A review of Gibbs function. Chemical thermodynamics. Introduction to statistical thermodynamics. Ideal solutions. Non-ideal solutions. Properties of electrolytes.

BCT 311 – ORGANIC CHEMISTRY II (3 Credits)
Alcohols and their reactions. Ethers and Epoxides, Carboxylic and KEtones.
Carbanion I and B – unsaturated compounds
Carbanion II. Amines, Aromatic and Alicyclic chemistry. Polyfunctional compounds. Heterocycle chemistry.

BIO 327 – MICROBIAL GENETICS (3 Credits)
Survey of the current status of microbial genetics (bacterial, fungi, viruses and ptotozoa) including discussion of methods and findings in the area of mutagenesis. Inductions, isolation and biochemical characterization of mutants, adaptation, transformation, transduction, conversion and conjugation. General and specialize methods and techniques in microbial genetics, experiments with virulent phases, tempate phases and lysogenic bacteria, fungi and other lower encaryotic genetics.

BCT 320 – METABOLISM OF NUCLEIC ACIDS (2 Credits)
Genome organization and biosynthess of proteins. Metabolism of purines and pyrimidiens, nucleosides and nucleoderma pigmentation and skin cancer.

BIO 320 –BIOSTATISTICS (3 Credits)
Population and samples. Probability distribution. Normal Poison and Binomial distribution. Mean Standard Error. Standard deviation. Cub fitting. CHI-TEST. Student Test. T-distribution, Regression, Correlation Coefficients, Analysis of Variance (One way and two way).

BCT 328 – METABOLISM OF LIPIDS (2 Credits)
Classification of lipids – fatty acids, triglycerides, glycosylglyceroles phospholipids, waxes, prostaglandins. Lipids micelles, monlagers and bilayers Liproproein; covalent backbone of proteins, Amino acid sequence of protein. Protein isolation, fractionation, purification and characterization of proteins. Biological function of protein. Oxidation degradation of amino acids and metabolism of one carbon unit. Biosynthesis of amino acid and some derivatives, the urea cycle; metabolism of inorganic hydrogen. Disorders of amino acid metabolism.

BCT 324 – ENZYMOLOGY (3 Credits)
Vitamins and co-enzymes. Fat and water soluble vitamins, structures and functions of vitamins co-enzymes. Classification and nomenclature of enzymes. Genetics of enzymes and inhibition. Mechanisms of enzymes catalyzed reactions. Effect of temperature, pH, ions and inhibitors on enzyme catalyzed reactions. Mechaelism-menten equation. Allosteric/regulatory enzymes. Active sites of enzymes. Estimation of kinetic parameters, enzymes activities Km, Vmax, Ki etc. zymogen activation, digestive enzymes etc. production, isolation, purification and characterization of enzymes. Recent advances in enzymology.

BCT 327 – BIOENERGETICS (2 Credits)
High – energy compounds; chemical potentials, electrochemical potentials, Election transport system and oxidative phosphorylation, regulation of ATP production. Chemical thermodynamics, oxidations reductions.

BCT 321 – GENERAL BIOCHEMICAL METHODS (PRACTICAL) (2 Credits)
Practical laboratory exercises in areas of interest to out across a wide specutrum of general biochemistry. Laboratory practicals may be arranged on the basis of 6 hours per week or 3 hours per week for a semester.

400 LEVEL COURSES ( First Semester )

*GLT 411 LABORATORY ORGANIZATIONS AND MANAGEMENT I(3 Credits)
Planning and designs of laboratories. Ways of acquiring laboratory accommodation. Flexibility in laboratory design, special features of teaching, industrial, research and hospital laboratories. General space requirements:
laboratory layout: provision of services, floors windows, doors benches, cupboards drawers units, mechanical services- heating and ventilating fume, cupboards, lightening, electrical supplies, water suppliers, piped gases, safety in design; decoration, allocation of floor in multi-storey buildings.
Management of Stores
Stores policy, stores design and planning – storage of chemicals, hazardous materials, storage of apparatus, documentation.
Laboratory Administration
Technical information – filling systems, indexing systems, Dewey chemical classification, laboratory records – keeping, office facility and equipment, decision making – seeking advice, staff meetings advisory committee, meetings, formal committee meetings.
Maintenance of Laboratory Premises and Equipment
Planned maintenance – inspection of premises and equipment
Services Department and Special – Purposes Rooms
Glassware washing and sterilizing facilities, radioscope laboratories, photographic units, cold-rooms, animal houses, reprographic units, laboratory workshops, audio- visual aids – audio aids. Visual aids, glassblowing shops.

SBC 416 – ADVANCED BIOCHEMICAL METHODS (3 Credits)
The purposes of this course is to familiarize students with operation of latest biochemical equipment and with methods of assimilation and dissemination of information. Students will therefore go round lecturers and laboratories housing specialized equipment with aim of exposing them to such equipment under the supervision of lecturer. Part of the course will also cover the effective use of the library, preparation of dissertations of these papers for journal publication and journal reviews. Special assignments and essays will be given to students.

BCT 419 – ADVANCED ENZYMOLOGY (2 Credits)
Steady state enzymes kinetics. Transient kinetic methods. Chemistry of enzymes catalysis. Regulatory enzymes. Molecular models for allosterilsm. Multienzyme complexes. Enzymes assays. Criteria for determining purity of enzymes. Enzymes reconstruction. Regulation of enzymes activity and synthesis.

BCT 410 – BIOSYNTHESIS OF MACROMOLECULES (3 Credits)
Structure and function of macromoleculdes. Storage and structural polysaccharides, mucoploysaccharides, glycoproteins, bacterial cell wall synthesi of complex lipids, lipoprotins and nucleic acids.

BCT 411 – BIOINORGANIC CHEMISTRY (2 Credits)
Relationship between the physiochemical properties and biological functions of inorganic ions. Ligand complexes and their biochemical significance. Electrolye metabolism. Nitrogen fixation and sulphur cycle.

BCT 412 – GENETIC ENGINEERING (2 Credits)
Replication, transcription and translation: a brief review. The genetic code and its relationship to cellular functions. DNA replication in a cell-free system. Genetic transformation, transduction and conjugation. Gene mutation, mutation, mutagenic agent and thin applications of gene transfer. Gene mapping. Structure of eukaryotic genome. Recombinant DNA and its application. Hybridomas.

BCT 413 – PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY (2 Credits)
Organization of plant cells, photosynthesis, alkaloitds and flavonoids, plant hormones, Biosynthesis of carotenoid Pigzents, Biochemistry of plant development. The plant cell wall structure, formation and growth, Ligin formation. Free amino acids, pyrimidines, purines and nucleosides in plants. Metabolism of auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins. Synthesis growth regulator and herbicides. Structures function relationship of plant hormones.

BCT 414 – BIOCHEMICAL REASONING (2 Credits)
Evaluation and design of experimental biochemistry from available information and data. Analysis, interpretation and inference drawing form biochemical research data.

BCT 415 – BIOCHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY I (3 Credits)
Biochemical toxicology, definition and scope, absorption and distribution; toxic kinetics; metabolism of toxicants, comparative toxicologyl physiological factors affecting metabolism of Zenobiotics elimination of toxicants, and their metabolites, toxicant-receptor interactions, genetics poisons chemical carcmogenesis, trace element toxicity, hepatoxicity.

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING [6 months – Second Semester]
The SIWES programe shall be undertaken in suitable laboratories in medical/public or industrial laboratories. A talk on experience during industrial attachment will be presented orally and in written form.

*GLT 420 – Industrial Training (Site work Supervision) (4 Credits)

*GLT 421 – Industrial Training (University Supervision) (4 Credits)

*GLT 422 – Industrial Training (Student Report) (4 Credits)

500 LEVEL
BCT 514 – METABOLIC REGULATION (2 Credits)
The regulation of Krebs cycle to protein, carbohydrate, lipid and nucleic acids metabolism. Integration of metabolic pathways. Turnover rate and metabolic pools. Regulation of enzymes of metabolic pathways feed-back inhibition versus enzyme synthesis catabolite repression, and product repression, the lactose operon and arabinose operon. Identification of different regulatory mechanism in metabolic pathways.

BCT 515 – PHARMACOLOGICAL BIOCHEMISTRY (2 Credits)
Cellular metabolism in infected cells. Biochemical aspects of host-parasite relationships. Metabolic factors affecting chemotherapeutic agents. Theories of the mechanism of drug action. Drug resistance and other factors affecting drugs. Nigerian traditional medicinal plants in the management and therapy of common ailments in Nigeria – malaria, sickle cell academia, common cold, hepatitis etc.

BCT 523 – ADVANCED BIOCHEMISTRY (3 Credits)
Coordination of microbial metabolism, biosynthesis of metabolites, media and air sterilization power requirements in fermentation vessels, instrumentation and control of fermentation processes, computers in fermentation processes; theory application and technique of continuous culture. Chemicals and fuel via fermentation oxygen transfer and scale-up; production of antibiotic cellulose, and starch hydrolysis (mechanisms and applications).

BCT 513: ENZYME BIOTECHNOLOGY (3 Credits)
Principles of industrial large-scale extraction and purification. Principles and Designs of immobilized-reactors. Characteristics of free venus immobilized enzymes. Immobilized coenzymes and white cells. Enzyme utilization in industrial processes.

BCT 524 – BIOMASS UTILIZATION (2 Credits)
The concept of biomass for energy and fuels now and in the future. Food, chemical, feedstocks. Raw materials and preparation-forest inventories, agricultural perspective, aquatic source, municipal solid waste production micro-algae, hydrogen from water; structure and chemical composition of biomass anatomy ultra-structure and chemical composition of wood cellulose. Structural characteristics of acid hydrolysis of lignin. Conversion methods of biomass-biological and thermochemical. Cellulose and their applications.

BCT 518 – INDUSTRIAL BIOCHEMISTRY (3 Credits)
A short review on microbial physiology and genetics. A review on general marabolic pathway control and application in industrial processes. Continuous culture methods, principle and applications. The chemostat and its application in industrial fermentations. Fermentation-alcoholic, amino acids, antibiotics and its other secondary metabolites. Primary and secondary metabolism. Process evaluation and development. Over production of metabolites – amino acids, taste enhances, organisms of industrial importance. Induction of mutation in microorganisms and plants for the purpose of over production. Strain selection/development and enhancement. Gene dosage and its application in industrial processes.

  • BCT 516 SEMINAR (2 Credits)
    This is a 2-unit courses of critical review of current topics of Biochemical interest. Students are required to write a treatise on selected topics and to present class seminar on them. Hormones, immunochemistry, onocology, brain biochemistry, monoclonal antibodies. These may be taught or seminars may be given by academic staffs and students.

*GLT 518 PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATIONS (3 Credits)
Concepts and fundamentals of photography cameras
The general principles, manipulation and care of different types of cameras in common use, their advantages and disadvantages.

Photomicrography: Projection and contact printing, choices and grades of paper, local control, finishing.
Colour photography principles of reversals and negative – positive process; type of materials, colour temperature, filters exposure.

Cine photograph
Cine photograph, use of 8mm cameral, video camera splicing and editing of commercially film.
Safety
Hazards in the use of photography reagents. Darkroom management.

*GLT 527 LABORATORY ORGANIZATION & MANAGEMENT II (3 Credits)
Management Techniques and Function
The concept and relevance of management to laboratory practice. Meaning of organization. Supervisory skills and management functions: planning; organizing; forecasting; motivating: coordination; controlling and communication etc. purchasing of laboratory materials; SOURCES OF FUNDS and different methods of purchasing. Preparation of purchasing orders. Receipt and storage of ordered materials. Issuing of material. Stock control management. Record keeping in the laboratory. Design and execution of scientific experiments. Scientific measurements and data collections. Literature search and retrieval. Factors affecting accuracy of experimental measurements. Preparation and presentation of experimental data – thesis/dissertation. Ways of presenting seminars. Selection and management of staff
Job description; the advertisement, application forms – references; interviewing and selection – final selection; contracts and conditions of service; induction; training and further education – motivation in technical education, recent DEVELOPMENTS in technical training and education, laboratory discipline: termination of employment. Organization of Laboratory Practice Elements of law . Common and statutory laws and relevance to laboratory practice such as health and safety , welfare of employees, and cruelty to animals. Import and exercise duties. Nature of contract. Contract in relation to purchasing etc. legislating regulation the science laboratory practice in Nigeria (NISLT) Act No. 12 of 2003). Structure of NISLT and functions. Legal and professional responsibilities of technologists. Organization of laboratory services in Nigeria – public and private laboratories. Professional code of ethics.
Types of business organization. Small business development. Industrial relations

Health and Safety
The basic approach – The health and safety at work etc. Act of 1974; organization of laboratory safety – line management, safety officers, safety committees, codes of practice, general attitude to laboratory safety, accident books and records, notable accidents the hazard – fire escapes, fire prevention, fire- fighting equipment, fire drills, fire escapes, fire radiation and the use of radioactive substances; cylinders of compressed gas; centrifuges; cryogenic substances; physical injuries; chemical; occupational hygiene; dermatitis and skin reactions; toxic substances and threshold limit values; carcinogens; bacterial, viruses and other biohazards.

  • BCT 521: PROJECT (4 Credits)

BCT 519 – BIOPHYSICS (2 Credits)
Some instrumental methods of biophysics, chemical energy, structures and behaviours of macromolecules in solution. Reaction kinetics. Mechanisms in biophysics, sensory function of the nervous system.

BCT 522 – TISSUE BIOCHEMISTRY (2 Credits)
Biochemistry of muscles, kidney, liver and adipose tissues. General metabolism of the brain and neuronal biochemistry. Biochemistry of reproductive tissues. Detoxification and excretion in tissues.

BCT 517 – PROCESS BIOCHEMISTRY (3 Credits)
Basic concepts of anaerobic metabolism, isolation, cultivation and identification of anaerobes – Thermophilic anaerovbes and their unique features. Survey of useful products manufactured by microorganisms, culture of yeasts, mould bacteria actinomycetes mammalian cells, genetic programming of Indus trial microorganisms. Microbial productions of beer, wine, bread, and cheese. Microbiological production of pharmaceutics (hormones and interferon) and industrial chemicals. Methanogenesis (mechanism and application for waste treatment) production methods in industrial microbiology, agricultural microbiology, and strain improvement strategies for industrial organisms.

BIOTECHNOLOGY OPTION
COURSE OUTLINE
300 LEVEL COURSES ( First Semester)
*GLT 305- RADIOCHEMISTRY AND NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY (3 Credits)
Natural radio-actions, fusion, fission decay processes, nature of radiation. Nuclear models, energetic of nuclear reaction. Principles and measurement of radioactivity. Applications of radioactivity

*GLT 315 – HAZARDS AND SAFETY IN THE LABORATORY/ LABORATORY MAINTENANCE AND FITTINGS (3 Credits)
Accidents and control measures. First Aid Treatment. First Aid Box. Maintenance of Laboratory Equipment. Laboratory Fittings.

*GLT 323- VACUUM PHYSICS AND THIN FILM TECHNOLOGY (3 Credits)
Design and characteristics of vacuum systems; different types of vacuum pumps and their uses, measurement of low pressure, different types of pressure gauges, uses of valves and other vacuum materials. Industrial uses of vacuum systems, vacuum heating, furnaces, induction heating, electron bombardment heating.
Vacuum evaporation by various means, evaporation sources and techniques, substrate and surfaces preparation for thin film deposition in vacuum. Epitaial grow processes. Heat treatment for thin film, compatibility of film and substrates sputtering techniques, deposition of thin insulating films by r f. sputtering, preparation and uses of masks for thin film deposition. Characterization and application of thin films.

BTT 314 – SUBSTRATES BIOTECHNOLOGY (2 Credits)

  • Biomes strategy. Natural raw material. Availability of by-products. Chemical and petrochemical feed stocks. Raw materials and the future of Biotechnology

BTT 315 – GENETICS AND BIOTECHNOLOGY (3 Credits)

  • Industrial genetic. Protoplast and cell fusion technologies. Genetic engineering (introduction). Potential laboratory biohazards of genetic engineering. The polymerase chain reaction

BTT 316 – GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY (3 Credits)
A general study of Osmoregulation, Excretion, Transport, Homeostasis and their coordination in animals. Plant-Water relation, Growth and growth regulation. Physiological aspects of crop yield.

BTT 317 – INTRODUCTION TO BIOTECHNOLOGY (2 Credits)
What is biotechnology. Biotechnology – an interdisciplinary pursuit? Biotechnology –a three-component central core. Product safety. Public perception of biotechnology. Biotechnology and the developing world. Career possibilities, history and application of DNA and RNA Technology. Molecular biology. Bioethics and Laboratory safety practices

BTT 318 – TISSUE AND CELL CULTURE TECHNIQUES (2 Credits)
History and development of cell and tissue culture. Theory of Plasticity and Totipotency. Types of Media. Role of macro and micro elements and growth regulation. Culture types. Sources of Explants and cells. Application of Tissue Culture. Plant and Animal Regeneration (Callogenesis, Embryogenesis, Somatogenesis and Organogenesis).

BIO 319 – BIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES (4 Credits)
Basic research techniques in Biological Sciences including Manometry, Spectrophotometry, Chromatography, Isotope Methods, Advanced Microscopy. Staining and preparation of Permanent Slides including the use of Microtome. Sterilization and Culture Techniques. Presentation and Interpretation of Biological Data.

BIO 320 – BIOSTATISTICS (3 Credits)
Population and samples. Probability distribution. Normal Poison and Binomial distribution. Mean Standard Error. Standard deviation. Cub fitting. CHI-TEST. Student Test. T-distribution, Regression, Correlation Coefficients, Analysis of Variance (One way and Two way).

BIO 327 – MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (3 Credits)
Structure and function of DNA and RNA. The Genetic code. Mechanism of Protein synthesis. Regulation of protein biosynthesis and implication for control of growth and differentiation. Genetic Engineering

BIO 328 – MYCOLOGY (3 Credits)
Structure, Life cycles, Physiology and Classification of Fungi. Fungi of Economic
importance.

*GLT 348 – INSTRUMENT METHODS OF ANALYSIS (3 Credits)
Spectroscopic techniques. Quantitative analysis. X-ray methods. Florescence methods Nuclear magnetic resonance electrons spin resonance. Refractormetry and interferometry. Polarimetry, marography.

BTT 329 – BIOPROCESS/FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY (Adv. Biotech- 3 Credits)
Principle of microbial growth. The bioreactor/fermenter. Scale up. Media design for fermentation process. Solid substrate fermentation. Technology of mammalian and plant cell culture. Downstream processing
BTT 328 – GENERAL CYTOLOGY (2 Credits)
Aspects of Cell and Nuclear division. Morphology and behaviour of Chromosomes. Chromosomal aberration and polyploidy.

400 LEVEL COURSE OUTLINE (First Semester)

*GLT 411 LABORATORY ORGANIZATIONS AND MANAGEMENT I (2 Credits)
Planning and designs of laboratories. Ways of acquiring laboratory accommodation. Flexibility in laboratory design, special features of teaching, industrial, research and hospital laboratories. General space requirements:
laboratory layout: provision of services, floors windows, doors benches, cupboards drawers units, mechanical services- heating and ventilating fume, cupboards, lightening, electrical supplies, water suppliers, piped gases, safety in design; decoration, allocation of floor in multi-storey buildings.

Management of Stores
Stores policy, stores design and planning – storage of chemicals, hazardous materials, storage of apparatus, documentation.

Laboratory Administration
Technical information – filling systems, indexing systems, Dewey chemical classification, laboratory records – keeping, office facility and equipment, decision making – seeking advice, staff meetings advisory committee, meetings, formal committee meetings.

Maintenance of Laboratory Premises and Equipment
Planned maintenance – inspection of premises and equipment

Services Department and Special – Purposes Rooms
Glassware washing and sterilizing facilities, radioscope laboratories, photographic units, cold-rooms, animal houses, reprographic units, laboratory workshops, audio- visual aids – audio aids. Visual aids, glassblowing shops.
BTT 417 – ENZYME BIOTECHNOLOGY (3 Credits)
The nature of enzymes. The application of enzymes. Genetic engineering and protein engineering of enzymes. The technology of enzymes production. Immobilized enzymes
BTT 418 – GENETICS (3 Credits)
Polyploidy: Origin. Significance and Classification. Chromosomal mutations and aberration. Gene concept, Multiple allelism, Gene action and Gene mutation. Polygenic Inheritance. Extra chromosomal inheritance. Population genetics. Human genetics.

BTT 419 – SINGLE CELL PROTEIN (3 Credits)
The need for protein. Acceptability and toxicology of SCP. SCP derived from high energy sources. SCP from wastes. SCP from agricultural crops. SCP from algae. The economic implications of SCP

BTT 411 – METABOLIC PLANT PHYSIOLOGY (3 Credits)
Photosynthesis, CO2 as gaseous nutrient. The photosynthetic apparatus and light absorption. Calvin Cycle, C3 pathway, C4 photosynthesis, photorespiration. Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). Photosynthesis and chemosynthesis in micro-organisms. Translocation pathway and mechanism of the process, hypothesis. Nitrogen metabolism. N. cycle, symbiotic and non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Absorption of nitrogen by plants. Amino acid formations amides, proteins and alkaloids.
Respiration; glycolysis and anaerobic pathway, Krebs cycle. Pentose shunt. Control of respiration; respiratory enzymes, measurement of respiration rates.

BTT 412 – BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MEDICINE (3 Credits)
Pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals. Antibiotics. Vaccines and monoclonal antibodies. Biopharmaceuticals. Gene therapy
BTT 413 – BIOTECHNOLOGY IN THE AGRICULTURAL AND FORESTRY INDUSTRIES (3 Credits)
Plant biotechnology. Forestry. Biological control. Animal biotechnology. Diagnostics in Agriculture

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING [6 months – Second Semester]
The SIWES program shall be undertaken in suitable laboratories in medical/public or industrial laboratories. A talk on experience during industrial attachment will be presented orally and in written form.

*GLT 420 – Industrial Training (Site work Supervision) (4 Credits)

*GLT 421 – Industrial Training (University Supervision) (4 Credits)

*GLT 422 – Industrial Training (Student Report) (4 Credits)

500 LEVEL
FIRST SEMESTER

BTT 512 – ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY (3 Credits)
Microbial ecology/environmental biotechnology. Waste water and sewage treatment. Land fill technologies. Composting. Bioremediation. Microbes and the geological environment. Environmental sustainability

BTT 518 – FOOD AND BEVERAGE BIOTECHNOLOGY (3 Credits)
Food and beverage biotechnology. Enzymes and food processing. Sweeteners. Food wastes. Miscellaneous microbially derived food products. Rapid diagnostics. Bioprocess technology. Public acceptance and safety of new biotechnology foods

BTT 519 – PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY (3 Credits)
Chemical substances which make up life. General survey of carbohydrate, lipids and proteins. Morphology of cells/organelles and viruses. Introduction to enzymes. The photosynthetic apparatus and the structure of chlorophylls. The bacterial cell wall and the viral coat. Membranes and transport across them. Glycolysis, TCA cycle and electron transport. Enzyme of primary metabolism. Fatty acid and amino acid oxidation. Photophosphorylation carbondioxification and photorespiration. Plant energy transformation. Plant phenolics, lignins, flavinoids and alkaloids.

BTT 514 – MUSHROOM SCIENCE (3 Credits)

  • BTT 516 – SEMINAR (2 Credits)

BTT 517 – SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND COMMUNICATION (2 Credits)

*GLT 518 PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATIONS (3 Credits)
Concepts and fundamentals of photography cameras
The general principles, manipulation and care of different types of cameras in common use, their advantages and disadvantages.

Photomicrography: Projection and contact printing, choices and grades of paper, local control, finishing.
Colour photography principles of reversals and negative – positive process; type of materials, colour temperature, filters exposure.

Cine photograph
Cine photograph, use of 8mm cameral, video camera splicing and editing of commercially film.

Safety
Hazards in the use of photography reagents. Darkroom management.

*GLT 527 LABORATORY ORGANIZATION & MANAGEMENT II (3 Credits)
Management Techniques and Function
The concept and relevance of management to laboratory practice. Meaning of organization. Supervisory skills and management functions: planning; organizing; forecasting; motivating: coordination; controlling and communication etc. purchasing of laboratory materials; SOURCES OF FUNDS and different methods of purchasing. Preparation of purchasing orders. Receipt and storage of ordered materials. Issuing of material. Stock control management. Record keeping in the laboratory. Design and execution of scientific experiments. Scientific measurements and data collections. Literature search and retrieval. Factors affecting accuracy of experimental measurements. Preparation and presentation of experimental data – thesis/dissertation. Ways of presenting seminars. Selection and management of staff
Job description; the advertisement, application forms – references; interviewing and selection – final selection; contracts and conditions of service; induction; training and further education – motivation in technical education, recent DEVELOPMENTS in technical training and education, laboratory discipline: termination of employment. Organization of Laboratory Practice Elements of law . Common and statutory laws and relevance to laboratory practice such as health and safety , welfare of employees, and cruelty to animals. Import and exercise duties. Nature of contract. Contract in relation to purchasing etc. legislating regulation the science laboratory practice in Nigeria (NISLT) Act No. 12 of 2003). Structure of NISLT and functions. Legal and professional responsibilities of technologists. Organization of laboratory services in Nigeria – public and private laboratories. Professional code of ethics.
Types of business organization. Small business development. Industrial relations

Health and Safety
The basic approach – The health and safety at work etc. Act of 1974; organization of laboratory safety – line management, safety officers, safety committees, codes of practice, general attitude to laboratory safety, accident books and records, notable accidents the hazard – fire escapes, fire prevention, fire- fighting equipment, fire drills, fire escapes, fire radiation and the use of radioactive substances; cylinders of compressed gas; centrifuges; cryogenic substances; physical injuries; chemical; occupational hygiene; dermatitis and skin reactions; toxic substances and threshold limit values; carcinogens; bacterial, viruses and other biohazards.

STB 513 – PRINCIPLES OF PLANT PATHOLOGY (3 Credits)
Concepts of plant pathology. Causes of diseases, host-parasite relationship. Culture of fungi. Diagnostic features: recognition and control of diseases of major importance.
2ND SEMESTER

  • BTT 521 – RESEARCH PROJECT (4 Credits)

BTT 525 -APPLIED STORAGE TECHNIQUES (3 Credits)

BTT 524 – PROTECTION OF BIOTECHNOLOGICAL INVENTIONS (3 Credits)
Patent protection. Trade secrets. Plant breeders’ rights. Safety in biotechnology. Problems of organism pathogenicity. Problems of biologically active biotechnology product

BTT 522 – SAFETY IN BIOTECHNOLOGY (3 Credits)
Problem of organism pathogenicity. Problem of biologically active biotechnology products

BTT 523 – Genetic engineering- Safety, social, moral and ethical considerations. (3 Credits)
Release of genetically manipulated organisms to the environment. Genetic modifications and food uses. The applications of human genetic research. Genetic testing and screening. Human gene therapy

PHYSICS/ELECTRONICS OPTION

300 LEVEL
PET 329: ANALYTICAL MECHANICS I (3 Credits)
Newtonian mechanism; motion of a particular in one, tow and three dimensions; systems of particles and collision theory; newtonian gravitation; conservative forces and potentials, oscillations, central force problems; accelerated frames of reference; rigid body dynamics generalized motion, mechanics of continuous media.

PET 313 – ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM (3 Credits)
Maxwell’s equations and electromagnetic potentials. The wave equation. Propagation of plane waves. Reflection and Refraction. Transmission lines, waves guides and resonant cavites; radiation, Geometrical optics, interference of waves. Diffraction.

PET 314 – QUANTUM PHYSICS (3 Credits)
Wave – particle duality and the uncertainty principles, basic principles of quantum theory; energy levels in potential well; reflection and transmission of potential barriers; atomic and molecular structure and spectra, nuclear structure and reactions fission and fusion; magnetic resonance; elementary particles.

PET 316 – ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT (2 Credits)
Energy and power, principles, demands and outlook, transformation of energy and its cost; thermal pollution; electrical energy from fossil fuels; hydroelectric generation; principles and problems. Costs, capacity, storage, reserves, efficiency, new environmental effects. Electrical energy capacity storage, reserves, efficiency, new environmental effects. Electrical energy from nuclear reactors; energy in the future breader reactors, fusion power, geothermal power, tidal power etc.

PET 317 – INTRODUCTION TO SOLID STATE ELECTRONICS (2 Credits)
Electrical condition in metals and semiconductor, energy barrier, motion of electrons in electric and magnetic fields, Hall effect, Thermoelectric effects photoelectric and secondary electronic emission phenomena. Photoconduction. Devices based on photoelectric effects, photoconductive and secondary emission effects. Phtomultipliers. Phtodiodes insrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, fabrication of simple devices, p-n junction, bipolar and field effect transistor. Solar cells.
Frequency response analysis of electronic amplifiers, oscillators. Power feedback instrumentation amplifiers. Introduction to operational amplifier. Field effect transistor circults stabilized power supplied and voltage regulation circult. Transducers, noise and interference in systems. Introduction to multistage amplifiers. Differential amplifier circults.

PET 318 – ELECTRICAL CIRCULT THEORY (3 Credits)
General outline of linear circult analysis, linear transformations, one port and two port networks, single-phase sinusoidal alternating, current circuits, lock diagrams, polyphase circults, network topology.
The methods of symmetrical components; some properties of three phase systems, examples of networks of unbalanced impedances. Distribution parameter networks. Ladder network, periodic non-sinusoidal currents in linear ciruclt, Fourier series, harmonics in three phase systems. Conventional filter design and operational methods of transient analysis of distributed parameter networks, non-linear a.c. circults, frequency responses polces and zeroes and time delay, root-locus concepts.

PET 319 – Physics Lab. Techniques and Practice I (3 Credits)

  1. Construction and graduation of meter rules. Scales. Practical use of timers.
  2. Productions of standard weights of mass 50g,100g, 150g etc to 500g
  3. Coiling of helical springs as practical means of measurements of oscillations and motion-straight line graphs elongation – introduction of young’s modulus of elasticity.
  4. Construction of pulleys and force diagram boards and using the pulley, boards and masses of resolve forces.
  5. Construction of simple lever systems
  6. Construction of knife edges with wood and metal.
  7. Construction of toy track and its application of the experimental verification of uniform acceleration.
  8. Use of burnt fluorescent tube for experimental determination of Stoke’s law – Also comparison, of viscosities of liquids.
  9. Inertia and Motion – application to Newton’s first law of motion.
  10. Unit of force – Momentum – conservation of.
  11. Action and Reaction – practical examples – the hammer and the nail.
  12. The spring balance – Construction, force resolution.
  13. Thermometers – Capillarity.
    iii) The laboratory course consists of a group of experiments drawn from diverse area of physics (optics, Electromagnetism, mechanics, modern physics etc) it is accompanied by seminar studies of standard experimental technique and analysis of famous and challenging experiment.
    Sound:
  14. Production of resonant tubes from dead fluorescent tubes – local materials.
  15. construction of sonometer boxes and the calibration of the boxes.
  16. Using either (1) or (2) in conjunction with tunning forks to determine experiment in sound and wave motion.

Light (Optics)

  1. Construction of simple plane mirrors.
  2. Care and maintenance of option instruments commonly in the laboratories e.g. the cathetometer, the microsocope.
  3. Use and maintenance of interferometers. Use of the Newton’s ring the gratings and their use in the determination of Option Laws.
  4. The laser. Use and care of the laser. Different types of laser available should be introduced and their characteristics studied.
  5. Application of lesser in optical experiment
  6. Construction of reflectors. Devices, p-n junctions. Bipolar and field effect transistor. Solar cells.

PET 329 – ANALYTICAL MECHANICS II (3 Credits)
Degrees of freedom; generalized coordinates lagrange’s formulation of mechanics. Applications the calculus of variations and the action principle. Hamilton’s formulation of mechanics, application. Invariance and conservation laws, oscillatory systems, including damped force and coupled oscillations, normal modes.

PET 322 – STATISTICAL AND THERMAL PHYSICS (3 Credits)
Basic concept statistical mechanics, microscopic basics of thermodynamics and applications of macroscopic systems, condensed states, phase transformations quantum distributions; elementary kinetic theory of transport process, fluctuation, phenomena. Applications.

PET 327 – Physics Lab. Techniques and Practice II (2 Credits)
A year – long series of mini courses of important experimental techniques. Topics covered include electronics, optics, electricity, atomic, molecular nuclear, and low temperature physics, statistics and data handling and scientific writing.

PET 324 – SOLID STATE PHYSICS I (3 Credits)
Crystal structure and crystal binding. Elastic properties, lattice-vibrations superconductivity. Dieletic properties. Magnetism paramagnetism and diamagnetics; ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism; magnetic resonance. Imperfections in solids.

*GLT 305- RADIOCHEMISTRY AND NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY (3 Credits)
Natural radio-actions, fusion, fission decay processes, nature of radiation. Nuclear models, energetic of nuclear reaction. Principles and measurement of radioactivity. Applications of radioactivity

*GLT 315 – HAZARDS AND SAFETY IN THE LABORATORY/ LABORATORY MAINTENANCE AND FITTINGS (3 Credits)
Accidents and control measures. First Aid Treatment. First Aid Box. Maintenance of Laboratory Equipment. Laboratory Fittings.

*GLT 323- VACUUM PHYSICS AND THIN FILM TECHNOLOGY (3 Credits)
Design and characteristics of vacuum systems; different types of vacuum pumps and their uses, measurement of low pressure, different types of pressure gauges, uses of valves and other vacuum materials. Industrial uses of vacuum ayatems, vacuum heating, furnaces, induction heating, electron bombardment heating.
Vacuum evaporation by various means, evaporation sources and techniques, substrate and surfaces preparation for thin film deposition in vacuum. Epitaial grow processes. Heat treatment for thin film, compatibility of film and substrates sputtering techniques, deposition of thin insulating films by r f. sputtering, preparation and uses of masks for thin film deposition. Characterization and application of thin films.

*GLT 348 – INSTRUMENT METHODS OF ANALYSIS (3 Credits)
Spectroscopic techniques. Quantitative analysis. X-ray methods. Florescence methods Nuclear magnetic resonance electrons spin resonance. Refractormetry and interferometry. Polarimetry, marography.

400 LEVEL COURSES ( First Semester )
*GLT 411 LABORATORY ORGANIZATIONS AND MANAGEMENT I (2 Credits)
Planning and designs of laboratories. Ways of acquiring laboratory accommodation. Flexibility in laboratory design, special features of teaching, industrial, research and hospital laboratories. General space requirements:
laboratory layout: provision of services, floors windows, doors benches, cupboards drawers units, mechanical services- heating and ventilating fume, cupboards, lightening, electrical supplies, water suppliers, piped gases, safety in design; decoration, allocation of floor in multi-storey buildings.

Management of Stores
Stores policy, stores design and planning – storage of chemicals, hazardous materials, storage of apparatus, documentation.

Laboratory Administration
Technical information – filling systems, indexing systems, Dewey chemical classification, laboratory records – keeping, office facility and equipment, decision making – seeking advice, staff meetings advisory committee, meetings, formal committee meetings.

Maintenance of Laboratory Premises and Equipment
Planned maintenance – inspection of premises and equipment

Services Department and Special – Purposes Rooms
Glassware washing and sterilizing facilities, radioscope laboratories, photographic units, cold-rooms, animal houses, reprographic units, laboratory workshops, audio- visual aids – audio aids. Visual aids, glassblowing shops.

PET 414 – MATHEMATICS METHODS IN PHYSICS I (2 Credits)
Linear algebra and functional analysis. Transformation in linear vector space and matric theory. Hilbert space and complet sets of orthogonal functions. Special function of mathematical physics. The gamma function; hyergeometric function; legendre functions; Bassel functions. Hormite and Languerre function. The Dirac Delta function. Integral transforms and Fourier series: and Fourier transforms; laplace transform. Applications of transform methods to the solution of elementary differential equations of interest in Physics and Engineering.

PET 415 – COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS (4 Credits)
Use of numerical methods in physics; various methods of numerical integration, differentiation, numerical solution of some differential equations in physics. Statistical analysis of experimental data.

PET 416: ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION (3 Credits)
The transistor as a switch, power dissipation base over drive storage drive and switching speed, logic gates NAND OR with close logic, the TTL and gate, Truth table noise margins, television pole, open collector and tristate, TTL, CMOS, NMOS, ECL Combinational systems, Bolean algebra, identities, De-Morgans Law, karmaugh maps, Qui McChusky minimization by computer aided techniques. The half and full adder, Fli-flop R-S, J-K and D types edge and level trigger, master slave types, the shift register. Cirucult techniques. Oscillation sine wave amplitude control, sequencing frequencing stability. Waveform discrimination. Practical ramp generators. Conversion techniques, frequency to voltage staircase generations analogue to digital A to A. termination of pulsed lines, Beageron diagram. Low noise amplifier design. Use to discrete components for minimum noise.

PET 417 – DIGITAL ELECTRONICS (3 CREDIT) (3 Credits)
The transistor as a switch, power dissipation base over drive storage drive and switching speed, logic gates: NAND OR with close logic, the TTL and gate, Truth table, noise margins, Television pole, open collector and triastate, TTL, CMOS, NMOS, ECL Combinational systems, Bolean algebra, identities, De-Morgan’s law, karmaugh maps. Qui McChusky minimization by computer aided techniques. The half and full adder. Fli-flop: R-S, J-K and D types edge and level trigger, master slave types, the shift register. Circuit techniques. Oscillation sine wave amplitude control, sequencing frequencing stability. Waveform discrimination. Practical ramp generators. Conversion techniques, frequency to voltage staircase generators analogue to digital A to A termination of pulsed lines, Beageron diagram. Low noise amplifier design. Use of discrete components for minimum noise.

GLT 418 – INTRODUCTION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS (3 CREDITS) (3 Credits)
Modulation, Radio and T.V. system. Telephone instruments, lines loses, noise, T & T. networks, radar and navigational aids data transmission.

PET 410 – ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY (3 Credits)
The hydrogen atom. Relativistic effects and spin. Identical particles and symmetry. Many electron atoms. Coupling schemes and vectors model. Zeeman effects. Hyperfine structure. The diatomic molecule, the Frankcondon principle. X-ray diffraction. Microwave methods. Reasonance phenomena; ES,, NMR and optical and pumping and mossbauer sctterung.

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING [6 months – Second Semester]
The SIWES program shall be undertaken in suitable laboratories in medical/public or industrial laboratories. A talk on experience during industrial attachment will be presented orally and in written form.

*GLT 420 – Industrial Training (Site work Supervision) (4 Credits)

*GLT 421 – Industrial Training (University Supervision) (4 Credits)

*GLT 422 – Industrial Training (Student Report) (4 Credits)

500 LEVEL
PET 510 – MATHEMATICAL METHODS IN PHYSICS II (3 Credits)
Partial differential Equations; Solution of boundary value problem of partial differential equations by various methods which include separation of variables, the method of integral transforms, sturm-Liouvelle theory, integral and summation of series. Applications to various physical situations which may include lectromagnetic theory, quantum theory, diffusion phenomena.

PET 512: ELECTRONIC DEVICES: DESIGNS & FABRICATION (2 Credits)
Relevant items/ devices of commercial interest to be handled by individual units.

PET 513 – NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS (3 Credits)
Nuclear structure, nuclear properties nuclear size, nuclear masses, nuclear forces, nuclear – nucleon scattering, nuclear models. Radio – active Decay; Alpha, beta, gamma decays. Nuclear reactions.

PET 514 – SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY (3 Credits)
The chemical physics of semiconductors, preparation, purification, growth of simple crystals evaluation of chemical structural properties, dropping, effects mechanical and metallurgical properties. Thermodynamic and kinetic consideration in crystal growth from met and by chemical vapour transport techniques. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray Photograph, photo luminescence and mass spectroscopy, Si, Ge, Ga As and measurements of electrical properties.
Processing of semiconductors material for device fabrication. Formation of p-n junction luminescence and luminescent materials, phtoemissive and photoconductive materials. Materials for IC’s and their fabrication.

PET 517 – QUANTUM MECHANICS I (3 Credits)
The formulation of quantum mechanics in term of state vectors and linear operations. Three dimensional spherically symmetric potentials. The theory of angular momentum and spin. Identical particles and the exclusion principle. Method of approximation. Multielectron atoms.

PET 515 – physics lab. Tech. practical ii electricity (3 Credits)
Collection and classification of conductors/insulators.

  1. Making of Dry cells boxes
  2. Connection of Dry cells in series and parallel.
  3. Practical use of d.c Ammeters and voltmeters
  4. Construction modification of d.c. and A.C meters. Use of shunts and multiplers.
  5. Simple A. C/D.C tests with meters – condenser testing techniques.
  6. Making of small resistances with standard wire gauges.
  7. Testing of small resistance constructed with meters.
  8. comparison of resistances made with standard resistances.
  9. Construction of resistance boxes
  10. Introduction of post office box
  11. Construction of the meter bridge
  12. Construction of the potentiometer bridge
  13. application of bridges to experiments
  14. voltmeters and Ammeters
  15. wiring techniques – lamps and switching arrangements in wiring
  16. Other electrical indication instruments – the galvanometer.
    a. Application to wheat stone bridge
    b. Different galvanometers in common use in the laboratories
  17. Construction and use of jockeys
  18. Fuses – connection
  19. Fault finding technique e.g. trouble shooting techniques
  20. Colour coding of resistor and condensers.
  21. Connection of resistances – series/parallel resistivity tests.
  22. Comparism of e.m.f of cells
  23. Experimental determination of Ohm’s kirhoffs Law
  24. Simple construction of parallel plate condensers.

MAGNETISM

  1. Magnetic material-collection and classification of magnetic and non-magnetic substances.
  2. Use of magnetic needles in the determination of the earth’s magnetic poles.
  3. The electroscope.
  4. The electromagnet-construction of electric bells and relays.
  5. Making of the solenoids
  6. Transformers, construction and maintenance
  7. Making of inductance-various winding techniques
  8. Simple experiments involving inductance
  9. Simple experiment involving electromagnetic inductances
  10. The induction coil application and simple demonstrations – A/C and D/C generations.
  11. Connection of cables to A/C sources (American, Britain and European cable colour codes).

PET 525 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENERGY PROCESSES (3 Credits)
Theory of modern energy conversion, transmission and storage methods; windmills, Heat engines, Classical engines, Ocean thermal energy converters, Thermoelectric, Therminonic, Fuel cells, production of hydrogen electrolytic, chemical thermolytic, photlytic, hydrogen storage. Photoelectron converters, photo thermovoltaic converters, Biomass, photosynthesis, production of methanol and ethanol from vegetable matter.

PET 523 – NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS II (2 Credits)
Nuclear instrumentations and radiation detection techniques, detectors, nuclear spectroscopy. Neutron physics: production, detection of neutrons. Fission and fusion. Nuclear reactor and nuclear energy. Elementary particles: conservation laws, partial classification. Strong electromagnetic and weak interactions.

PET 522 – SOLID STATE PHYSICS II (3 Credits)
Dielectric properties. Magnetism paramagnetism and diamagnetics; ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism; magnetic resonance. Imperfections in solids.

PET 529 – QUANTUM MECHANICS II (2 Credits)
Time – independent and time-dependent perturbation theory. Scattering theory, theory elastic potential scattering, Green’s function and partial wave methods. Selected phenomena from each of atomic physics, molecular physics, Solid state Physics and nuclear are described and then interpreted using quantum mechanical models.

  • PET SPE 516 – SEMINAR (2 Credits)
  • PET 518 PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATIONS (3 Credits)
    Concepts and fundamentals of photography cameras
    The general principles, manipulation and care of different types of cameras in common use, their advantages and disadvantages.

Photomicrography: Projection and contact printing, choices and grades of paper, local control, finishing.
Colour photography principles of reversals and negative – positive process; type of materials, colour temperature, filters exposure.

Cine photograph
Cine photograph, use of 8mm cameral, video camera splicing and editing of commercially film.

Safety
Hazards in the use of photography reagents. Darkroom management.

  • PET 521 – RESEARCH PROJECT (4 Credits)
    *GLT 527 LABORATORY ORGANIZATION & MANAGEMENT II (3 Credits)
    Management Techniques and Function
    The concept and relevance of management to laboratory practice. Meaning of organization. Supervisory skills and management functions: planning; organizing; forecasting; motivating: coordination; controlling and communication etc. purchasing of laboratory materials; SOURCES OF FUNDS and different methods of purchasing. Preparation of purchasing orders. Receipt and storage of ordered materials. Issuing of material. Stock control management. Record keeping in the laboratory. Design and execution of scientific experiments. Scientific measurements and data collections. Literature search and retrieval. Factors affecting accuracy of experimental measurements. Preparation and presentation of experimental data – thesis/dissertation. Ways of presenting seminars. Selection and management of staff
    Job description; the advertisement, application forms – references; interviewing and selection – final selection; contracts and conditions of service; induction; training and further education – motivation in technical education, recent DEVELOPMENTS in technical training and education, laboratory discipline: termination of employment`.
    Organization of Laboratory Practice
    Elements of law. Common and statutory laws and relevance to laboratory practice such as health and safety , welfare of employees, and cruelty to animals. Import and exercise duties. Nature of contract. Contract in relation to purchasing etc. legislating regulation the science laboratory practice in Nigeria (NISLT) Act No. 12 of 2003). Structure of NISLT and functions. Legal and professional responsibilities of technologists. Organization of laboratory services in Nigeria – public and private laboratories. Professional code of ethics.
    Types of business organization. Small business development. Industrial relations

Health and Safety
The basic approach – The health and safety at work etc. Act of 1974; organization of laboratory safety – line management, safety officers, safety committees, codes of practice, general attitude to laboratory safety, accident books and records, notable accidents the hazard – fire escapes, fire prevention, fire- fighting equipment, fire drills, fire escapes, fire radiation and the use of radioactive substances; cylinders of compressed gas; centrifuges; cryogenic substances; physical injuries; chemical; occupational hygiene; dermatitis and skin reactions; toxic substances and threshold limit values; carcinogens; bacterial, viruses and other biohazards.

*Core Courses

CHEMICAL/PETROLEUM TECHNIQUES
COURSE OUTLINE
300 LEVEL
CPT 359 Thermodynamics
Definition of terms and general concepts of system, surrounding, process, temperature heat, work and energy. First Law of Thermodynamics Application to open systems, Second Law of Thermodynamics Application to heat energies entropy, First and Second law combined. Perfect Gases. Joule Thompson coefficient. Equilibrium processes. Maxwell’s relations two phase system thermodynamics functions of solution P-V-T relationship, Work from Heat Energy.

  • Core Courses

CPT 327 Applied Mechanics
Vectors, operations with forces, resultant of coplanar force systems. Resultant of spatial force systems. Equilibrium and coplanar force system. Centre of gravity, centre of mass. Newton’s laws of motion and their applications, impulse and momentum, kinematics of a point, composition and resolution of velocities and acceleration relative velocity and acceleration, representation by vectors. Plane Kinematics of rigid body, angular velocity diagrams applied to simple mechanisms instantaneous center of rotation. Equation of motion, linear momentum and moment of momentum. Kinetic energy, moment of inertial. Free vibrations of systems with one and two degrees of freedom including damping-Tensional vibration.

CPT 328 Industrial Process Calculations
Units and dimension. Stoichiometry Vaporization Processes. Material Balance involving chemical reactions. Heat balanced; simultaneous heat and mass balances. Unsteady state heat and Mass balances introductory Process Economics.

CPT 324 Chemical Thermodynamics
Generalized P-V-T Relations. The P-V-T behavior of pure substances. Equation of state of gases. The principle of corresponding state. Compressibility relations, reduced pressure, reduce volume, temperature, pseudocritical constants. P-V-T approximations for gaseous mixture-ideal gas mixtures. Dalton’s law of additive pressure, Amagat law of additive volumes. Pseudo-critical point method. Kay’s rule. Gililand’s method Behaviour of liquids.
Heat Effects: Heat Capacities as a function of temperature. Specific of Liquids and solid. Heat effects accompanying phase chage-Clausuis-Claperon equation. Standard heats of reaction, formation and combustion. Effects of temperature on heat of reaction. Heats of mixing and solution. Ethalpyconcentration diagrams for H2SO4 – H20, etc. partial enthalpies: single and multiple effect evaporators with regards to heat effect.

Industrial stoichiometry, Gas analysis – Orsat methods, determination of components in fuel. Calculations based on fuel reaction for nitrogen and oxygen in the fuel, correction for sulplus calculation based on fuel-gas analysis. Net hydrogen-carbon ratio in the fuel and percent excess air. Air/fuel and fuel-gas/air ratios. Interrelation of fuel and fuel gas analysis. High nitrogen fuels. Mixed fuels.
Thermodynamics of flow processes: fundamental equations: continuity equation, equation of motion, energy equation. Bernoulli’s equation. Flow in pipes, laminar and turbulent flows, Reynolds anum bers, friction factor-fanning equation. Flowmeters. Nozzles. Compressors single and multistage, effect of clearance.

Phase equilibria. Criteria of equilibrium. Fugacity of a pure component General fugacity on fugacity. Pressure temperature composition relationship. Phase behavior oat low and elevated pressure. Rauolt’s law. Henry’s law, Equilibrium constant. Activity coefficient, Gibbs-Duhein equation Margules and Van Laar equation.

Chemical Reaction Equilibria: Standard free energy change and equilibrium constant. Evaluation or equilibrium constants. Effects of temperature and pressure on equilibrium constants. Calculation of conservation. Gas phase reactions, percent conversion. Liquid phase reaction, heterogeneous reactions.

CPT 333 Applied Fluid Mechanics
Fluid Statics: Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. Force on submerged surfaces, Equation of fluid motion, Flow measurement, forces exerted by flowing fluids, laminar and turbulent flow. Renolds number flow in pipes and channels, dimensional analysis, one, two, or three dimensional steady flows of a comprehensible fluid, critical flow, small amptitude waves, shock waves fluid machinery.

CPT 329 Metallurgy
Introduction to metallurgy, hardening of metals. Deformation and Annealing of metals. Corrosion Annealing of metals. Corrosion and Oxidation phenomenon. Alloy steels stainless, creep of metal joining. The measurement of temperature. Electrical abd magnetic alloys. Copper and its alloys polymers. Aluminum magnesium and light alloys. Titanium and other flow metals.

CPT 384 Technology of Materials
Structure of matter. Crystal imperfection. Simple phase diagrams of alloys. Physical properties of materials (i.e. wood, cement, pastics, and alloy) Mechanical properties of engineering materials. Engineering and true stress-strain curve. Ultimate strength, ductile, impact strength, hardness, torsion, creep and fatigue failure. Electrical properties-conductivity, semi-conductivity and super conductivity. Optical.

CPT 314 Petrochemistry
Origin of petroleum. Expletation technique. Parameters for evaluation (grading) constituents, fractionation and methods of identification. Chemistry of refining processes. Characteristics and uses of refinery products, Economic aspect of crude petroleum oil pollution and its control.

GLT 311 Chemical Technology of Petroleum
Desalination processes. Atmospheric and vacuum distillation of petroleum and petroleum fractions. Gasoline stabilization and sweetening. Properties of fuelsoctane number, cetane number etc. hydrocarbon gas purification and separation. LPG Production Gas Processing – alkylation and polymerization. Thermal processes – cooking, thermal cracking and pyrolysis. Catalytic reforming and isomerization.

GLT 348 – INSTRUMENT METHODS OF ANALYSIS (3 Credits)
Spectroscopic techniques. Quantitative analysis. X-ray methods. Florescence methods Nuclear magnetic resonance electrons spin resonance. Refractormetry and interferometry. Polarimetry, marography.

CPT 304 Chemical Reaction Technology II
Heterogeneous reactions: fluid-solids interaction systems. Norcatalytic, and solidcatalyzed gas-phase reaction. Tubular reactors-design equation based on plug flow for isothermal and adiabatic cases. Transport effects, packed bed design.

Fluidshed and slurry-phase reactors and their uses. Factors affecting choice of reactor-optimisation-output and yield problems. Conditions of stability of reactors. Rate – controlled regime in gas-solid catalysed by porous catalysts. Scale-up procedure-batch and continuous flow reactors. Economic evaluation and comparison of reactor types. Review of elementary theorems and operations on vectors and matrics. Theory of linear systems including rank degeneracy, differentiation and integration of matrics. Linear Programming Properties of eigeavalues and eigenvectors . cayley-Harmilton and Sylvester’s theorem. Reduction to quadratic diagonal and canonical forms. The matrizant. Application to chemical – engineering state processes including rectification, multicomponent distillation, stage absorbers, complex monomoleculary kinetics stirred tank reactors and stage dynamics.

CPT 314 Strength of Materials
Force equilibrium free body diagrams. Elasticity – concept of stress, strain tensile test. Young’s modules and other strength factors. Axially loaded barts, composite bars, temperature stress and simple indeterminate problems. Hoop stresses in cylinders and rings, bending moment, shear force and axial force diagrams for simple cases. Simple torsion and application. Advance topics ion bending moments and shear force in beams. Theory of bending of beamsw. Unsymmetrical bending and shear center. Application strain energy. Biaxial and Triaxial state of stress. Transformation of stresses. Morhs circle. Failure theories, springs, creep, fatigue, fracture and stress concentration.

CPT 326 Polymer Science and Technology
Introduction to polymer and their characteristics. Sources of polymers Structures and physical properties of polymers, theology, solution and molecular weights. Plasticity and elasticity the William Lande Ferry Equation Polymensation reactions and manufacturing methods Zegler catalysis Processing and technology of Polymers.

400 LEVEL COURSES ( First Semester )

*GLT 411 LABORATORY ORGANIZATIONS AND MANAGEMENT I (2 Credits)
Planning and designs of laboratories. Ways of acquiring laboratory accommodation. Flexibility in laboratory design, special features of teaching, industrial, research and hospital laboratories. General space requirements:
laboratory layout: provision of services, floors windows, doors benches, cupboards drawers units, mechanical services- heating and ventilating fume, cupboards, lightening, electrical supplies, water suppliers, piped gases, safety in design; decoration, allocation of floor in multi-storey buildings.

Management of Stores
Stores policy, stores design and planning – storage of chemicals, hazardous materials, storage of apparatus, documentation.

Laboratory Administration
Technical information – filling systems, indexing systems, Dewey chemical classification, laboratory records – keeping, office facility and equipment, decision making – seeking advice, staff meetings advisory committee, meetings, formal committee meetings.

Maintenance of Laboratory Premises and Equipment
Planned maintenance – inspection of premises and equipment

Services Department and Special – Purposes Rooms
Glassware washing and sterilizing facilities, radioscope laboratories, photographic units, cold-rooms, animal houses, reprographic units, laboratory workshops, audio- visual aids – audio aids. Visual aids, glassblowing shops.

CPT 417 Particulate Mechanics
Particle-Fluid Mechanics: Motion of single particles and drops in a fluid. Terminal falling velocities. Flow past sphere assemblies. Effect of particle concentration on soning rate. Thickner calculations. Centrifuging-characteristics of a rotating fluid. Principles of Separation by sedimentation and centrifuging. Types of centrifuges.

CPT 413 Petroleum Production Technology
Origin of Oil, Conditions necessary for the accumulation of oil, Drilling fluids, hole control. Basic petrophysics, measurement of resistivity, porosity and other petrophysical properties. Reserves, measurement and production. Models of oil reservoirs. Material balances for Gas drive, solution drive and water drive fields. Elementary oil production engineering.

CPT 416 Technology of Fossil Fuel processing
Source, availability and characterization of fossil fuel (petroleum, natural gas, Tar sands coal) Modern processing technology choice of products lines and products, alternative products lines and product lines and product specification will be emphasized.

CPT 412 Introduction to Transfer Processes
Basic laws of mass momentum and energy transfer processes and their relationship. Simple problems involving dimensionless groups such as Re, Sc, Pr, Measurement, Calculation and Prediction of Transport coefficient.

CPT 410 Mass transfer
Review of theories fore prediction of man coefficients. Application of distillation (Mccable thile and Ponolion Savant method) extractive and azeotixpic distillation. Multicomponent distillation gas absorption, liquid/liquid extraction drying, leaching and humidification.

CPT 414 Heat Transfer
Nature of processes of conduction, convection and radiation. Definition of thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficients. Conducting through materials with constant and vary heat-transfer areas. Unsteady-state conduction: solution of equations for simple cases.
SChmid’s methods
Dimentional analysis and heat transfer by convection forced convection inside and outside tubes bundles. Thermal boundary layer. Reynolds analogy and its developments. Heat exchangers – log mean temperature difference in single and multiple pas exchangers; calculation of heat transfer coefficient. Optimum design. Finned tubes lagging effectiveness and economic thickness. Radiation Kirchhoffs and Stefan’s laws. Emissivity. Calculation of net heat exchange between bodies – multiple reflection and net radiation methods. Radiator from gases.
Heat transfer during condensation of vapours Derivation of Nussel equation Drop – wise and film-use condensation. Effect of non-condensable gases. Heat transfer to boiling liquids. Types of boiling and influence condition on heat fluxer and transfer coefficients.

CPT 420, 421, 422 – INDUSTRIAL TRAINING [6 months – Second Semester]
The SIWES programme shall be undertaken in suitable laboratories in medical/public or industrial laboratories. A talk on experience during industrial attachment will be presented orally and in written form.

*GLT 420 – Industrial Training (Site work Supervision)

*GLT 421 – Industrial Training (University Supervision)

*GLT 422 – Industrial Training (Student Report)

CPT 518 Environmental Technology
Pollution and the Environment-definitions and inter-relationships, natural and man made pollution the economics of pollution. Air pollution-gaseous and particulate pollutants and their sources. Effects on weather, vegetation materials and human health. Legislation relating to air pollution. Methods of control of gaseous emission and destruction, cyclones inertial, separators, electrostatic precipitators, bag filters, wet washers etc. dispersal form chimmeys and method of calculating chimmey height. Flare stacks.
Water pollution-river pollution by industrial effluents legislation and standards for effluent discharge. Impurities in natural and their effects. Brief survey of river ecology and the effects of effluents on the ecosystems. Treatment processes including precipitation flocculation coagulation sedimentation. Cost of treatment. Treatment for water re-use, on exchange. Cooling water treatment. Land pollution – Disposal of solid waste by incinerator and dumping. Possible future trends including conservation of solid wastes into useful materials or energy. Treatment of other types of pollutions-noise. Thermal and nuclear pollutions.

CPT 512 Process Control
Classical control theory. Transfer function. Time and frequency response stability theory. Root locus method. Control system designs. Instrumentation modern control theory. Observability and controllability modern recheability. State – space analysis. Introductory sampled data analysis. Control of distillation columns, reactors and heat exchangers.

CPT 513 Process Optimization Engineering
Stationary Optimisation: Differential Approach Numerical Approach, linear and non linear programming. Trajectory optimization including dynamic programming, calculus of variation and pontryagin optimum principle Numerical computational techniques including first and second order methods.

CPT 517 Pulp, Wood and Paper Technology
Cellulose and Hemicellulose-structures and characteristics. Lignin. Pulp wood-types and properties. Types of pulping processes – sulphite, alkaline, mechanical semichemical etc. bleaching fiber preparation, nature of fiber bonding. Sheet formation water usage and disposal in pulp and paper industries, Microbiology.

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE TECHNIQUES

COURSE OUTLINE
300 LEVEL COURSES
BST 310 – CELL BIOLOGY AND HISTOLOGY
Details of structure and function of the muscles, mitochondrion, chloroplast, ribosomes, golgv complex, and lysosomes. Nucleic acid, protein structure and syntheis. Enzymes, plant tissues types, animal tissue types, organs and organ systems. Techniques in histology.

BST 314 – INDUSTRIAL FIELD COURSE 1
Sampling techniques in local habitats. Applied plant Anatomy in Aforestation, Horticulture and Biotechnology. Assessment by report.

BST 317 – GENERAL CYTOLOGY
Light, phase-contrast, dark field and electron Microscopy, auto-radiography, florescence, cell cycle, introductory cytogenetics.

BST 318 – INTRODUCTORY ECOLOGY
The ecosystem approach to the study of ecology flow and nutrients cycling. Dynamics of populations and communities ecosystem, influence of man.

BST 316– GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY I
A general study of osmoregulation, excretion, transport, homoestatic and their co-ordination in animals. Plant water relation, growth and growth regulation. Physiological aspect of crop yield.

BST 323 – GENERAL ENTOMOLOGY
Evolution and systematic of insects. Insects structure and function with particular emphasis on the insect integument, antennae, mouth parts and legs including functional modifications of these parts.
Life history – moulting methods of locomotion in insects. Feeding, digestive, excretory. The success of insects. Insects pests and control methods insects collection methods, identification and preservation techniques.

BST 315 – SEEDLESS PLANTS
Morphology and reproduction of algae, bryophytes and pteridophytes including fossils.

BIO 328 – MYCOLOGY
Structure life-cycles physiology and classification of fungi. Fungi of Economic importance.

BIO 327 – MICROBIAL GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
Survey of the current status of microbial genetics[bacteria, Viruses, protozoa and fungi] including discussion of methods and finding in the areas of mutagenesis, inductions, isolation and biochemical characterization of mutants adaptations, transformation, transduction, conversion and conjugation. General and specialized methods and techniques in microbial genetics. Experiments with virulent phages temperate phages and Iysogenic bacteria. Fungi and other lower eukaryotic genetics.

400 LEVEL

*GLT 411 LABORATORY ORGANIZATIONS AND MANAGEMENT I (2 Credits)
Planning and designs of laboratories. Ways of acquiring laboratory accommodation. Flexibility in laboratory design, special features of teaching, industrial, research and hospital laboratories. General space requirements:
laboratory layout: provision of services, floors windows, doors benches, cupboards drawers units, mechanical services- heating and ventilating fume, cupboards, lightening, electrical supplies, water suppliers, piped gases, safety in design; decoration, allocation of floor in multi-storey buildings.

Management of Stores
Stores policy, stores design and planning – storage of chemicals, hazardous materials, storage of apparatus, documentation.

Laboratory Administration
Technical information – filling systems, indexing systems, Dewey chemical classification, laboratory records – keeping, office facility and equipment, decision making – seeking advice, staff meetings advisory committee, meetings, formal committee meetings.

Maintenance of Laboratory Premises and Equipment
Planned maintenance – inspection of premises and equipment

Services Department and Special – Purposes Rooms
Glassware washing and sterilizing facilities, radioscope laboratories, photographic units, cold-rooms, animal houses, reprographic units, laboratory workshops, audio- visual aids – audio aids. Visual aids, glassblowing shops.

BST 417 – MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
Biogenesis of microtubules, microfilaments, golgi mtiochondria. Membrane – membrane interactions. Introduction bioenergetics and thermo-dynamics.

MBT 411 – FOOD MICROBIOLOGY
The distribution role and significance of micro-organisms in food, intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of foods that affect microbial growth, food spoilage and ‘food microbiological standards. Disease of animals transmissible to man via animal products.

BST 411 – POPULATION GENETICS
An introductory consideration of mathematics models for the analysis of gene frequencies and genetic variation in populations.

BST 412 – PRINCIPLES OF STORAGE ENGINEERING
Power of storage machinery. Different types of conveyors their mechanisms. Grain processing and grinding equipment. Grain cleaning and grading equipment. General principles of crops and grain dry, storage and handling structures. Measuring instruments for crop drying processes. A guide to major items of equipment used for the application pesticides. Field tests for equipment. Choice of equipment grain dry installations.

BST 416 – BIOLOGY OF PESTS OF STORED PRODUCTS AD THEIR CONTROL
Invertebrate pests of stored fish, wild life products, meat, tuber root crops, vegetables, fruits, cereals, legumes, leather, and timber, the detailed life cycles, identification of various stages, behavioural pattern and structural adaptations enabling them to act as efficient pest. The effect of environmental conditions on the abundance of invertebrate pest. Vertebrate pests of stored products and the damaged they cause. Microorganisms as pest factors which influence or inhibit their continued spread. Biological and chemical pest control measures.

BST 418 – STORAGE TECHNIQUES
The principles involved in drying and dehydration of food. Sorption an isotherms of food; water activity. Traditional and modern and storage techniques for grains, pulses, root and tuber crops. Principles of cold chain system and of storage structures for cereals, tuber crops and pulses.
Storage of fresh foods such as vegetables, fruits, meat, fish, milk and dairy products. Quality assurance of stored foods.

BST 413– APPLIED PARASITOLOGY I
Parasite nutrition nature of interfaces between associating organisms. Gross and cytopathology of parasites vertebrate defensive responses of parasite to include principles of serology and immunology in specific general of parasites of defences. Immunization method is against major.

BST 418 – GENETICS
Aspect of human genetics and plant breeding, pedigree analysis. Further consideration of various deviations from basic principles. Gene interaction.

BST 414 – SOIL ECOLOGY
Physical and chemical nature of soil, Stritur organisms. Cycling of minerals and nutrient pools.

BST 420, 421, 422 – INDUSTRIAL TRAINING [6 months – Second Semester]
The SIWES programme shall be undertaken in suitable laboratories in medical/public or industrial laboratories. A talk on experience during industrial attachment will be presented orally and in written form.

*GLT 420 – Industrial Training (Site work Supervision)

*GLT 421 – Industrial Training (University Supervision)

*GLT 422 – Industrial Training (Student Report)

500 LEVEL
BST 525 – APPLIED STORAGE TECHNIQUES
This course shall involve a lot of practical and field practical. Stored products protection and preservation including spraying, dusting fumigation and smoking. Formulation and application of insecticides and fungicides for controlling storage products. Pests and diseases. Prevention of storage losses and assessment of damage and crop losses, practical survey, design and construction of storage facilities for tubers, root products and grains Fungi and vegetables. Students shall assist farmers, visit food mills, bakeries, canning factories and other food processing plants as well as cooperative societies involved in controlling stored products pests. Quality control, facilities for transporting stored food products.

BST 521 – PROJECT
A short research project involving an investigation on a selected biological problem. The project is to be written up in the form of a scientific report.

BST 511 – VECTORS AND PESTS MANAGEMENT
Vectors and Pests of economic importance e.g. insects, mites, mollusks, birds, rodents, etc a study of some of the problems they pose in West Africa crops and vegetables, mealy bugs/capsides on three crops. Causes of pest outbreak the pest management concept. The use of pesticides and chemical in pest control e.g. insecticides and problems associated with their use. Mechanisms of action of pesticides and antimicrobial agents. Lethal dose factors (LD50). Biological control the use of parasitoids and conditions affecting their effectiveness against – insects, autocidal methods of control. Types and use of pheromones, sterile male release techniques insect plant interaction, selection mechanisms of host plant resistance. Cultural control methods in West Africa integrated control methods in West Africa.

BST 529 – APPLIED VECTORS AND PESTS MANAGEMENT
This course shall particularly emphasize practical or field demonstrations and experiments on management of vectors and pests of economic importance in West Africa. Detailed study of the biology of vectors of animal diseases and their control e.g. Mosquitoes, testes-fly, black fly, house fly, sand fly, practical demonstration of their control in their productive habitats where possible. Invertebrate vectors of plants diseases and their control e.g. Aphids, scale insects. Vertebrate pests on farm crops e.g. birds, monkeys, rodents bat and their control. Molluscs as agricultural pests crop trees and their pests. Practical control of pest of farmland e.g., grasshoppers in waste land/abandoned farmland/college farm. Equipment used in vectors and pests control and their practical method used in various research/storage institutions and Agricultural development schemes for the control of pests.

  • BST 516 – SEMINAR
    The objectives is to give students some experience in preparing, reading and presentation of original research papers and to be familiar with current researchers in biology. A talk on experience during industrial attachment to be presented in written form. Also seminars on selected topics and projects shall be given by all students.

BST 513 – FOOD PROCESSING, PRESERVATION AND STORAGE
The value of food in human and national development. The principles of food processing and preservation. (a) Physical methods: – low temperature, high temperature, drying/dehydration, packaging, irradiation; (b) chemical methods; (c) biological methods. Food spoilage. Food deterioration and food additives. Storage techniques for fresh, frozen and dried foods. Quality assurance techniques.

BST 520 – SYSTEMATIC BIOLOGY
A Bio-systematic approach to the classification of organisms and nomenclature.

BST 510 – ADVANCED TAXONOMY OF ANGIOSPERMS
The origin of Angiosperms, their classification and nomenclature, classical experimental and numerical taxonomy. Herbarium methods and organization.

BST 517 – ECONOMIC BOTANY
Introduction to the plant kingdom, plant and the ancient man; basic plant taxonomy plant as sources of foods, beverages, spices, essentials oils, fibres, gums, fumi forces, drugs, resins and dynes, medicinal plants and their uses, edible mushrooms and their cultivation, plants as ornaments.